faecalis dentin infection was present in a high percentage of the

faecalis dentin infection was present in a high percentage of the root canals after 120 days of root filling exposure to the bacteria. Tagger’s hybrid technique presented greater quantity of bacteria in histologic sections than root canals obturated with the other techniques. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 788-794)”

thaliana reticulate mutants exhibit differential pigmentation of the veinal and interveinal leaf regions, a visible phenotype that often indicates impaired mesophyll development. We performed a metabolomic analysis of one buy BLZ945 ven6 (venosa6) and three ven3 reticulate mutants that revealed altered levels of arginine precursors, namely increased ornithine and reduced citrulline levels. In addition, the mutants were more sensitive than the wild-type to exogenous ornithine, and leaf reticulation and mesophyll defects of these mutants were completely rescued by exogenous citrulline. Taken together, these results indicate that ven3 and ven6 mutants experience a blockage of the conversion of ornithine into citrulline in the arginine pathway. Consistent with the participation of VEN3 and VEN6 in the same pathway, the morphological phenotype of ven3

ven6 double mutants was synergistic. Map-based cloning showed that the VEN3 and VEN6 genes encode subunits of Arabidopsis carbamoyl phosphate Selleck Selisistat synthetase (CPS), which is assumed to be required for the conversion of ornithine into citrulline in arginine biosynthesis. Heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis VEN3 and

VEN6 genes in a CPS-deficient Escherichia coli strain fully restored bacterial growth in minimal medium, demonstrating the enzymatic activity of the VEN3 and VEN6 proteins, and indicating a conserved role for CPS in these distinct and distant species. Detailed study of the reticulate MEK inhibition leaf phenotype in the ven3 and ven6 mutants revealed that mesophyll development is highly sensitive to impaired arginine biosynthesis.”
“Background: NADP(H):quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) is known for its protective role in skin carcinogenesis, but the expression of NQO-1 during keratinocyte (KC) differentiation has not been studied.

Objective: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate modulation of NQO-1 and NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) during MC differentiation.

Methods: Normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) were induced to differentiation by prolonged culture after confluency (postconfluence).

Results: NQO-1 was induced at the late stage of differentiation of NHEKs (7th day of postconfluence). The expression of postconfluence-induced NQO-1 was stimulated by 0.1 mM H(2)O(2), but attenuated by 5 mM N-acetylcysteine, implying that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in the expression of NQO-1 in differentiated KCs. Nrf2 was up-regulated at the earlier than NQO-1 induction (3rd day of postconfluence). The Nrf2-dependent expression of NQO-1 was further supported by Nrf2-siRNA experiments.

Methods: MDA-MB-468 human

breast cancer cells were treate

Methods: MDA-MB-468 human

breast cancer cells were treated overnight with 111In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid human epidermal growth factor (111In-DTPA-hEGF, 0-142kBq/pmol) or exposed to -radiation to induce DNA double strand breaks (DSB). DNA DSB formation was evaluated by detection of phosphorylated histone H2AX on serine 139 (-H2AX) using immunofluorescence. Confocal microscopy was used to capture images of -H2AX foci and cell nuclei. Image-J software with customized macros was used to quantify -H2AX foci. Results: The number of -H2AX foci per nucleus scored using Image-J correlated strongly with the number scored using direct visual confirmation (coefficient of determination, R2=0.950; 60 nuclei scored). The mean density (grayscale values per pixel), area and integrated density (IntDen) of individual foci increased AZD2014 concentration linearly as the specific radioactivity (SR) increased up to 67kBq/pmol (R2 values of 0.826, 0.964, 0.978, respectively). The mean number of foci per nucleus, the combined area of -H2AX foci per nucleus and the IntDen per nucleus also increased linearly with SR, giving R2 values of 0.926, 0.974 and 0.983, respectively. Similar linear relationships were observed with the -ray absorbed dose up to 3.0Gy. Conclusions: The density, area and IntDen of individual foci, as well as the number of -H2AX foci, total focus area and IntDen per nucleus were successfully quantified using Image-J with customized macros.”

Prostate biopsy grade is a key factor when deciding whether to perform pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) Selleckchem GW3965 at laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. In common

with many laparoscopic radical prostatectomy centers, we perform PLND in patients found to have intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer based upon preoperative PSA, prostate biopsy and imaging. We JQ1 solubility dmso assessed the feasibility of performing a secondary laparoscopic PLND 6 weeks post-operatively in the presence of postoperative upgrading in patients who did not have PLND. Methods: A prospective study recording the pathological results and operative outcomes prospectively over a 10-month period during which 24 patients underwent a secondary PLND. All patients had a preoperative PSA level <10 ng/ml and biopsy Gleason score of +/- 6 (3 + 3) and the prostatectomy specimen was subsequently found to have a Gleason score of >= 7 (4 + 3) or increased stage. Results: During the 10-month period, 377 prostatectomies were carried out in our department in which 54 (18.3%) had an upgrading in the prostatectomy specimen. 24 patients (mean age 60 and mean PSA 6.7 ng/ ml) agreed to a secondary PLND. No lymph nodes metastases were observed. One patient who was sexually potent following a nerve-sparing prostatectomy was impotent after the secondary PLND. Conclusions: Upgrading of prostate Gleason score is seen in up to a third of cases in many large published series that is reflected in our experience.

2 microdeletion encompassing the gene RAI1 (retinoic acid induced

2 microdeletion encompassing the gene RAI1 (retinoic acid induced

1) or a mutation of RAI1. Molecular evidence shows that most SMS features are due to RAI1 haploinsufficiency, whereas variability and severity are modified by other genes in the 17p11.2 region for 17p11.2 deletion cases. The functional role of RAI1 is not completely understood, but it is probably a transcription factor acting in several different biological pathways that are dysregulated in SMS. Functional studies based on the hypothesis that RAI1 acts through phenotype-specific pathways involving several downstream genes have shown that RAI1 gene dosage is crucial for normal regulation of circadian rhythm, lipid metabolism and neurotransmitter function. Here, we review the GDC-0994 chemical structure clinical and molecular features of SMS and explore more recent studies supporting possible therapeutic Selleck Quisinostat strategies for behavioural management.”
“The performance of a material in a biological environment is mainly mediated by its surface properties and the combination of chemical, physical, biological, and mechanical properties required for a specific application. In this study, the surface of a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) material (Elastollan (R) 1180A50) was successfully modified by plasma treatment. Two different working gases were studied: argon and oxygen, which promoted the incorporation of oxygen-containing groups

on the surface. The optimal plasma parameters were investigated by evaluating the wettability of the surfaces. Changes in the surface functional groups chemistry were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The obtained results showed that the plasma treatment process caused surface modifications that, in all cases, increased the polar nature of the surface. In terms of the desirable properties, it was found that the best operational conditions were: 100 W gas plasma, under a pressure of 60 Pa for 3 min. Argon seems

to be more efficient then oxygen, because lower water contact angle results were obtained. (C) 2011 Wiley Endocrinology & Hormones inhibitor Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 2302-2308, 2011″
“For several decades, the FDA has undertaken many initiatives to improve the quality and safety of sterile drug products. In recent years, efforts have also been undertaken to accelerate the rate for application approval by adding earlier involvement of microbiology reviewers in drug development. Product and manufacturing process development, as well as safe use and product design, are among the elements of enhanced technical involvement. An overview of the product quality microbiology aspects for sterile drugs is provided.”
“Background: Human populations that are naturally subjected to Plasmodium infection do not acquire complete protection against the liver stage of this parasite despite prolonged and frequent exposure.

A total of 120 blastocysts from each of the vitrified-warmed

A total of 120 blastocysts from each of the vitrified-warmed

and fresh oocytes were transferred to surrogate mothers and 23 and 27 offspring were born respectively. All offspring in both groups were healthy, grew and bred normally and gave rise to a second generation of pups. Thus, an ultra-rapid vitrification technique has been developed for mouse oocytes that uses low concentrations of cryoprotectants and slush nitrogen in quartz capillaries, which combines the benefits of slow freezing and vitrification. (C) 2009, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Women should never be forced to make a choice between mother-work and other work. Many women mistakenly think they cannot breastfeed if they plan to return to work, and thus they may not talk with their employers about their intention to breastfeed or how breastfeeding might be supported at their workplace. All breastfeeding

AZD7762 ic50 policies and strategies underline the importance of providing support Caspase inhibitor in vivo for lactating mothers and highlight the need to promote specific interventions in the workplace. Possible strategies for working mothers include having the mother keep the baby with her while she works, allowing the mother to go to the baby to breastfeed during the workday, telecommuting, offering flexible work schedules, maintaining part-time work schedules, and using on-site or nearby child care centres.”
“Embryo cryopreservation is an important aspect of assisted reproduction. Many methods have been described, but they have been poorly investigated in randomized trials, highlighting the need for a systematic review of the literature. Meticulous electronic/hand searches were performed to locate randomized trials (RCT) comparing embryo cryopreservation methods. Primary outcomes were clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and incidence of congenital abnormalities.

Secondary outcomes included live-birth (LBR), ongoing pregnancy (OPR), implantation (IR), and miscarriage (MR) rates. Data were extracted to allow for an intention-to-treat analysis and analysed using a random-effects model. Literature search revealed 11 RCT, of which five were excluded. The quality of the included studies was variable, QNZ in vivo but generally poor. There was a significantly higher CPR, OPR and IR with vitrification compared with slow freezing (odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-2.32, OR = 1.82, 95% Cl = 1.04-3.20 and OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.03-2.15, respectively). In addition, there was a significantly tower CPR and OPR with embryo ultra-rapid freezing compared with stow freezing (OR = 0.35, 95% Cl = 0.16-0.76 and OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.17-0.81, respectively). Vitrification is superior to stow freezing, which in turn is superior to ultra-rapid freezing. However, more well-designed and powered studies are needed to further corroborate these findings. (C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

truncatula has two PI homologues The expression of the two genes

truncatula has two PI homologues. The expression of the two genes, MtPI and MtNGL9, has strongly diverged, suggesting differences

in function. Our analyses show that these genes are required for petal and stamen identity, where MtPI appears to play a predominant role. However, they appear not to be required for development of the nodule, the common primordia or the complex leaf. Moreover, both M. truncatula PI homologues lack the PI motif, this website which indicates that the C-terminal motif is not essential for PI activity.”
“Objective-To determine the frequency of enteropathogens in cats entering an animal shelter with normal feces or diarrhea.

Design-Cross-sectional study.

Animals-100 cats evaluated at an open-admission municipal animal shelter in Florida.


samples collected within 24 hours after admission from 50 cats with normal feces and 50 cats with diarrhea were tested by fecal flotation, antigen testing, PCR assay, and electron Adavosertib chemical structure microscopy for selected enteropathogens.

Results-12 enteropathogens were identified. Cats with diarrhea were no more likely to be infected with >= 1 (84%) enteropathogens than were cats with normal feces (84%). Only feline coronavirus was significantly more prevalent in cats with diarrhea (58%) than in cats with normal feces (36%). Other enteropathogens identified in cats with and without diarrhea included Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin A (42% and 50%, respectively),

Cryptosporidium spp (10% and 20%, respectively), Giardia spp (20% and 8%, respectively), Cystoisospora spp (14% and 10%, respectively), Selleck THZ1 hookworms (10% and 18%, respectively), ascarids (6% and 16%, respectively), Salmonella spp (6% and 4%, respectively), astrovirus (8% and 2%, respectively), feline panleukopenia virus (4% and 4%, respectively), calicivirus (0% and 2%, respectively), and Spirometra spp (0% and 2%, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-In the present study, cats entered the shelter with a variety of enteropathogens, many of which are pathogenic or zoonotic. Most infections were not associated with diarrhea or any specific risk factors such as signalment, source, or body condition, making it difficult to predict which cats were most likely to be infected. It is not possible to test all shelter cats for all possible infections, so practical guidelines should be developed to treat routinely for the most common and important enteropathogens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;241:331-337)”
“A study of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and spectra fabric’s ultrasonic sealing (welding) potential was conducted using both continuous and discontinuous ultrasonic welding machines. The effects of two important welding parameters such as weld pressure and weld time were investigated on the fabric’s bond strength.

Moreover the method performed well compared to the results obtain

Moreover the method performed well compared to the results obtained in the reference laboratories, with 99.7%

MAPK inhibitor of identical results (kappa coefficient 0.9923, S. E. 0.0523).

Conclusion: Microarrays could be employed to monitor P. falciparum drug resistance markers with greater cost effectiveness and the possibility for high throughput analysis. The FlexiChip package is a promising tool for use in poor resource settings of malaria endemic countries.”
“Novel, randomly coupled, soluble, segmented polyimide-polydimethylsiloxane (PI-PDMS) copolymers were prepared from aminoalkyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (At-PDMS), 4,4′-oxydianiline diamine, pyromellitic dianhydride, and 4,4′-diphenylmethane diisocyanate RepSox supplier (MDI). When At-PDMS was introduced into the polyimide chain, the polyimide copolymers exhibited lower dielectric constants and better moisture resistance and mechanical properties. The reductions in the dielectric constant of the PI-PDMS copolymers Could be attributed to the incorporation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) into the polyimide chain and the nanopores in the film generated by carbon dioxide evolvement during the reaction. The lowest dielectric constant was 2.58 with 25 wt %

PDMS and 5 wt % MDI. In addition, the water contact angles of the resultant copolymers increased from 51 to 109 degrees when the contents of PDMS increased from 0 to 25 wt %. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 113: 1633-1641, 2009″
“Study Design.

Animal experiment using a rabbit posterolateral intertransverse process GSI-IX manufacturer fusion model.

Objective. To explore the temporal and spatial distribution of sensory nerve fibers expressing calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) during spinal fusion induced by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4 and the role of the CGRP innervation in ectopic bone formation and remodeling.

Summary of Background Data. Sensory neuropeptide CGRP involved in local bone turnover has been evidenced but its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Knowledge in the CGRP innervation in ectopic bone induced by bone morphogenetic proteins can help us to understand its role in bone turnover.

Methods. Twenty-seven New Zealand white rabbits underwent single level posterolateral intertransverse process fusion of the lumbar vertebrae with implantation of porous poly-d, l-lactic acid blocks loaded with 1.25 mu g recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4 solution. Animals were killed and the operated lumbar vertebrae were harvested for histomorphological evaluation at 3 days (n = 3), 1 week (n = 6), 3 weeks (n = 6), 7 weeks (n = 6), and 12 weeks (n = 6) following surgery, respectively.

Results. New cartilage presented at 1 week postimplantation adjacent to the implant, reached a peak volume at week 3 followed by a drop till week 12 after its ossification. Trabeculae-like woven bone structure presented at week 3.

Variables of interest included level of injury, initial American

Variables of interest included level of injury, initial American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), age, race, and etiology.


A total of 92.9% of lumbar (conus) patients neurologically improved one ASIA level or more compared with 22.4% of thoracic or thoracolumbar spinal cord-injured patients. Only 7.7% of ASIA A patients showed neurologic improvement, compared with 95.2% of ASIA D patients; ASIA B patients demonstrated a 66.7% improvement rate, whereas ASIA C had a 84.6% improvement rate. When the two effects were considered jointly in a multivariate analysis, ASIA A and thoracic/thoracolumbar patients had only a 4.1% rate of improvement, JNK signaling pathway inhibitors compared with 96% for lumbar (conus) and incomplete patients (ASIA B-D) and 66.7% to 72.2% for the rest of the patients. All of these relationships were significant to P < 0.001 (chi-square test). There was no link to age or gender, and race and etiology were secondary to region and severity of injury.

Conclusion. Thoracic (T4-T9) SCIs have the least potential selleck chemicals for neurologic improvement. Thoracolumbar (T10-T12) and lumbar (conus) spinal cord have a greater neurologic improvement rate, which might

be related to a greater proportion of lower motor neurons. Thus, defining the exact region of injury and potential for neurologic improvement should be considered in future clinical trial design. Combining all anatomic regions of the spine in SCI trials may be misleading if different regions have neurologic improvement

at different rates. Over a ten-year period, 95 complete thoracic/thoracolumbar SCI patients had only a 4.1% rate of neurologic improvement, compared with 96.0% for incomplete lumbar (conus) patients and 66.7% to 72.2% for all others.”
“Polygalacturonases (PGs) of wild-type and non-virulent phenotype conversion mutant (PC) strains of Ralstonia solanacearum were compared by investigating their activities and their inhibition by polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) from tomato stems. In cultures of wild-type strain ToUdk2, slimy (s), retarded slimy (rs) and non-slimy VE-821 chemical structure (ns) colonies appeared. The conversion of the ‘s’ into the ‘rs’ colony form coincided with the beginning of PG production. PG activity of the PC strain increased about 5 h earlier (at 6 hpi), and was up to 35 times higher in media supplemented with two different tomato stem extracts or polygalacturonic acid, compared to the wild-type at 6 hpi, and generally 4-8 times higher across test media and time. By hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HlC), fluorophor-assisted carbohydrate-polyacrylamid-gel electrophoresis (FACE PAGE) and mass spectrometry analyses, endo-PG PehA, exo-PGs PehB and PehC were identified. PGs of the PC mutant consisted mainly of endo-PG. The increased PG production after supplementing the medium with tomato cell wall extract was reflected by a higher activity of exo-PGs for both strains.

We evaluated 9 cases of MH Immunohistochemical expression of WT1

We evaluated 9 cases of MH. Immunohistochemical expression of WT1, GLUT-1, Nocodazole chemical structure and D2-40 was performed in all cases. All

9 MHs resulted completely positive for WT1 immunostaining. Immunohistochemistry performed in all 9 MH cases showed negative staining for GLUT-1 and D2-40. We added further support to the importance of WT1 as a useful tool in the diagnosis of vascular neoplasms. D2-40 negativity in all tested lesions implied that MH does not exhibit a lymphatic differentiation. GLUT-1, which is characteristically positive in infantile hemangioma and verrucous hemangioma, showed to be negative in MHs.”
“In the present study, we aim to evaluate the application potential of a combined assay of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and E6 oncoprotein in screening the virus-infected keratinocytes with higher telomerase activity in human papillomaviruses

(HPV) 16- and 18-related bowenoid papulosis (BP). HPV16/18 DNA in BP (n = 123) was identified by in situ hybridization, the expression of hTERT and E6 in HPV16/18-related BP (n = 68) was determined by immunohistochemistry. We demonstrated that the expression of hTERT correlated well with that of E6 oncoprotein in HPV16/18-related BP lesions (Spearman rho = 0.868, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the majority of keratinocytes with positive nuclear staining for hTERT or E6 in the consecutive sections of each HPV16/18-related BP lesion showed Nutlin-3a nmr GSK690693 purchase nuclear paleomorphism or nuclear mitosis. In conclusion, we suggested that a combined assay of hTERT and E6 oncoprotein can be used to screen the HPV-infected keratinocytes with higher telomerase activity in HPV16-related and HPV18-related BP lesions.”
“Two infants, 6 months and 4 months of age, presented with bilateral or unilateral external auditory canal polyps and otorrhea, respectively. Additional findings on examination included otitis media and mastoiditis. Tympanic membrane perforation was noted in one patient and a postauricular abscess in the

other. Incisional biopsies of the polyps and abscess were reported as nonspecific mixed inflammation and abscess wall, respectively. There was a limited response to an empirical 5-day course of trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole. The children were referred to the academic hospital, and excision of the polyps and biopsies of the middle ear, mastoid, and postauricular abscess was undertaken. All the biopsies demonstrated donovanosis. Reappraisal of the initial incisional biopsies also confirmed donovanosis. Trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole was administered to both patients for 3 weeks, with resolution of the lesions. Subsequent investigations confirmed genital tract donovanosis, human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and pulmonary tuberculosis in both mothers.

Here we showed that amyloid plaques were present at 4 months of a

Here we showed that amyloid plaques were present at 4 months of age and increased with age. CD11b-positive microglia clusters appeared in hippocampus and neocortex at 4 months of age and increased with age. Clustered glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes were observed in hippocampus and cortex after 6 months of age and increased with age. Double staining with CD11b/GFAP antibody and thioflavin S showed clustered microglia and astrocytes were in close association with amyloid plaques. Expression of TNF-alpha was detected at 8 months of age, while IL-1 beta IL-6 and MCP-1 at 10 months. These cytokines increased with age. Double immunostaining of cell specific marker and cytokine indicated TNF-alpha,

IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1 were expressed by activated microglia and a small part of activated astrocytes. MCP-1 was also expressed by neurons, which support BVD-523 chemical structure recent finding that MCP-1 expression was increased in neurons of AD patient. These results demonstrate amyloid plaques Apoptosis inhibitor and its associated inflammatory response developed at early stage of life and progressively increased with age, both activated glia and neurons are involved in chronic inflammation in AD. APPswe/PS1dE9

model provides a mean for studying the mechanisms and novel therapeutics for AD.”
“The assessment that heterozygous SHOX mutations leading to SHOX haploinsufficiency play a role in patients with idiopathic short stature (ISS) is already documented in the literature as well as the suggestion that additional copies of SHOX are strongly

implicated in a condition of tall stature. However, we report the first case of short stature in a male associated with the presence of three copies of the SHOX gene. Through chromosomal analysis, using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification method of SHOX salsa P018B kit and microsatellite analysis, we identify a new interstitial MLN4924 isolated duplication of the SHOX gene and its enhancer caused by a larger duplication of the PAR1 region in a boy with ISS. Consequently, we propose the hypothesis that this chromosome re-arrangement disrupts the regular interaction between the enhancer and promoter, resulting in a transcription block, thus producing a lack of gene activation, causing the clinical feature of short stature.”
“Background This preliminary study examined the effectiveness of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention at improving the quality of life among cancer patients. It was hypothesised that over the course of the intervention, patients would report increased psychological flexibility through acceptance of unpleasant thoughts and feelings, and that increased psychological flexibility would lead to improvements in distress, mood, and quality of life. Method Forty-five cancer patients participated in an ACT intervention. Outcome measures included self-reported distress, mood disturbance, psychological flexibility, and quality of life.

Because co-occurrence of developmental disorders is common, their

Because co-occurrence of developmental disorders is common, their early recognition would be helpful for better care of these children.”
“Persistence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) associated with antibody-mediated graft injuries following kidney transplantation predicts evolution toward chronic humoral rejection and reduced graft survival. Targeting plasma cells, the main antibody-producing cells, with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib may be a promising desensitization strategy.

We evaluated the in vivo efficacy of one cycle of bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2 x 4 doses), used as the sole desensitization therapy, GKT137831 purchase in four renal transplant recipients experiencing subacute antibody-mediated rejection with persisting DSA (> 2000 [Mean Fluorescence Intensity] MFI). Bortezomib treatment did not significantly decrease DSA MFI within the 150-day posttreatment period in any patient. In addition, antivirus (HBV, VZV and HSV) antibody levels remained stable following treatment suggesting a lack of efficacy selleck chemicals on long-lived plasma cells. In conclusion, one cycle of bortezomib alone does not decrease DSA levels in sensitized kidney transplant recipients in the time period studied. These results underscore the need to evaluate this new desensitization agent properly in prospective, randomized and well-controlled studies.”
“Study Design.

An experimental animal study with randomized, control design was conducted using a dog model.

Objective. To construct a novel posterior lumbar spine fusion model with orthotopic paraspinal muscle-pediculated bone flaps and to compare with the conventional posterolateral lumbar intertransverse process fusion.

Summary of Background Data. Previous studies have demonstrated that paraspinal musculature provided important vascular ingrowth into the fusion mass. However, the blood supply of paraspinal muscles

was still not sufficiently used in spinal fusion. In this study, we assessed the significant role of orthotopic paraspinal muscle-pediculated bone flaps in the healing of bone graft in spinal fusion.

Methods. selleck kinase inhibitor Thirty-two mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to 2 groups to undergo either posterior spinal fusion with orthotopic paraspinal muscle-pediculated bone flaps (treatment group) or posterolateral intertransverse process fusion (control group) at L5-L6 segment. All the fusions used an autologous bone graft obtained from bilateral posterior iliac crests. The animals were killed at 8 weeks or 16 weeks after surgery. The lumbar spines were evaluated by radiology, histology, and biomechanics.

Results. Treatment groups showed an increasing trend on radiographic grades, manual palpation, and biomechanical stiffness compared with control groups at 8 and 16 weeks. Histologic analysis revealed that there was more mature woven bone in the treatment group than the controls at both points.