Both open loop and feedback operative mode are described and achieved results are presented. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3360773]“
“Background: Reduction of HIV-1 breast-feeding transmission remains a challenge for prevention of pediatric infections
in Sub-Saharan Africa. Provision of formula decreases transmission but often increases child mortality in this setting.
Methods: A prospective observational cohort study of HIV-1 exposed infants of mothers receiving pre and postnatal medical care at Drug Resource Enhancement Against AIDS and Malnutrition centers in Mozambique was conducted. Live-born infants of HIV-1-infected women Talazoparib receiving medical care were enrolled, HIV-1 testing was performed at 1, 6, and 12 months of age using branched DNA. Mothers were counseled to breast-feed exclusively for 6 months
and were provided HAART antenatally mid postnatally for the first 6 months. Women with CD4 cell counts less than 350/cmm at baseline continued HAART indefinitely.
Results: Of 341 infants followed from birth, 313 mother-infant pairs (92%) completed 6 months and 283 (83%) completed 12 months of follow-up. HIV-1 diagnosis was ascertained in 287 infants (84%) including 4 who died. There were 9 cases of HIV-1 transmission: 4 of 341 (1.2%) at 1 S3I-201 month, 2 of 313 (0.6%) at 6 months, and 2 of 276 (0.7%) at PFTα 12 months (cumulative rate: 2.8%). Two mothers (0.6%) and 11 infants (3.2%) died. Maternal and infant mortality rates were 587 of 100,000 and 33 of 1000, while country rates are 1000 of 100,000 and 101 of 1000. HIV risk reduction was 93% and HIV-free survival at 12 months was 94%.
Conclusions: Late postnatal transmission of HIV-1 is significantly decreased by maternal use of HAART with high infant survival rates up to 12 months of age.”
“In order to compare multidimensional fatigue research findings across age and gender subpopulations, it is important to demonstrate measurement invariance, that is, that the items from an instrument have equivalent
meaning across the groups studied. This study examined the factorial invariance of the 18-item PedsQL (TM) Multidimensional Fatigue Scale items across age and gender and tested a bifactor model.
Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) was performed specifying a three-factor model across three age groups (5-7, 8-12, and 13-18 years) and gender. MG-CFA models were proposed in order to compare the factor structure, metric, scalar, and error variance across age groups and gender. The analyses were based on 837 children and adolescents recruited from general pediatric clinics, subspecialty clinics, and hospitals in which children were being seen for well-child checks, mild acute illness, or chronic illness care.