5%) were male while 167 (37 5%) were female The patients’ median

5%) were male while 167 (37.5%) were female. The patients’ median age was 32 years (SD 13.3) with a range #EPZ015938 in vivo randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# of 15-82 years. Stratification according to age showed that 244 (54.8) of the patients were aged 15-34, 144 (32.4%) were 35-54 years while 44 (9.9%) were 55+. In 13 (2.9%) cases, information about age was

not available. Of all the patients, 98 (22%) were HIV positive, 122 (27.4%) HIV negative and 225 (50.6%) were not tested for HIV. The majority of the HIV positive patients were from the South 89/195 (45.6%), while 9/25 (36.0%) were from the North. The age distribution among patients that were tested for HIV and the ones that were not tested were similar, patient’s median age were 32 (SD 13.9) and 31.5 years (SD 12.7) respectively. Spoligotyping Spoligotyping produced a total of 147 different patterns for the 445 strains

studied. Forty-nine patterns corresponded to orphan strains that were unique among more than 73,000 strains recorded in the SITVIT2 database (Additional file 1), as opposed to 98 patterns from 396 patients that corresponded to shared-types (SITs), i.e. an identical pattern shared by two or more patients worldwide (within this study, or matching another strain in the SITVIT2 database), as shown in Additional file 2. The genotypic clade designations, the percentage distribution of all SITs observed in this study; for each of the SIT shown, their binary/octal description, the number of total strains and percentage Nutlin-3a mouse in the present study as compared to the same in the SITVIT2 database are summarized in Additional file 2. Phylogenetic lineage description for each SIT was also provided. For the 98 SITs recorded a total of 79 SITs (containing 368 isolates) matched a pre-existing SIT in the SITVIT2 database, whereas 19 SITs (containing 28 isolates) were newly-created either within the present study or after a match with an orphan in the database. Irrespective Ergoloid of the database comparison, 50 patterns corresponded to clusters in the present study (Additional file 2); 50 clusters containing 348 isolates (2 – 32 isolates per cluster), amounting to an overall clustering rate of 78.2% (348/445). When the spoligotyping results and clade definitions

were linked to the distribution of clinical isolates within Principal Genetic Group (PGG) 1 versus PGG2/3 (characterized by the lack of spacers 33-36), it was evident that 185 or 41.6% of the isolates belonged to PGG1 (ancient lineages) as compared to 260 or 58.4% to the PGG2/3 (modern lineages) (Fig 2). Figure 2 The principal genetic groups (PGG) in Mozambique. The figure illustrates the 4 most predominant clades in our study comprised both PGG1 and PGG2/3 lineages: LAM (PGG 2/3); ancestral EAI (PGG1); T clade (PGG 2/3); and the globally-emerging Beijing clone (PGG1). If one takes the sample of clinical isolates with newly created SITs in the database and orphans as an indication of newly documented diversity of tubercle bacilli, a total of 39/185 or 21.

A blood sample was obtained for laboratory analyses from all but

A blood sample was obtained for laboratory analyses from all but one child. Local anaesthetical patches (EMLA R; AstraZeneca AB, Södertälje, Sweden) were used to reduce the discomfort of venipuncture. Dietary intakes were calculated from 3-day food records with Diet32 software (Aivo Oy Finland, Turku, Finland). The buy 4SC-202 nutrient contents of the foods was based

on the Finnish National Food Composition Database, Fineli, version 2001, maintained by the National Public 3-Methyladenine manufacturer Health Institute of Finland, Nutrition Unit. The total intake of vitamin D included intake from diet and from supplements. Laboratory measurements Serum 25-OHD was measured with an OCTEIA immunoenzymometric assay (IDS, Bolton, UK). The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was less than 3.9% and interassay variation (4.5%). Reproducibility was ensured by adhering to the Vitamin D External Quality Assessment Scheme (DEQAS). EIA SB-715992 results were compared with HPLC results in order to determine the reliability of EIA in measuring 25-OHD2 concentration. The results were consistent (r = 0.751, p < 0.001, R 2 = 0.495); therefore, the EIA results were used throughout the study. Vitamin D status in children was defined as deficient when S-25-OHD was below 37.5 nmol/l, insufficient when it was between 37.6 and 50 nmol/l,

and sufficient when it was above 50 nmol/l, according to the published pediatric reference values [20]. In adults, a concentration of at least 80 nmol/l is considered optimal for multiple health outcomes [22]. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (S-BALP) was assayed with an OCTEIA Octase BAP immunoenzymometric assay (IDS) in order to characterize bone formation. Samples were diluted 1:5 to meet the standard curve. Intra- and interassay CVs were 6.1% and 6.7%, respectively. The bone resorption marker, serum active isoform 5b of the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (S-TRACP), was determined with a bone TRAP assay (SBA Sciences, Turku, Finland). Intra- and interassay

CVs were 1.2% and 3.0%, respectively. pQCT bone measurement Peripheral bone variables were determined by pQCT from the left tibia. One 2.5-mm slice (voxel size, 0.4 mm) at the 20% site of distal tibia, was measured with a XCT-2000 scanner (Stratec, click here Pforzheim, Germany) as described previously [10]. Data was analyzed using version 5.50 of the manufacturer’s software package, in which the bone contour was analyzed with a single threshold of 180 mg/cm3 for the detection of total bone mineral density (BMD), BMC, and CSA. The long-term CVs for the phantom BMD and CSA were 1.9% and 1.1%, 2.7% and 0.79%, and 0.50% and 0.78% in the total, cortical, and trabecular bone, respectively. Short-term precision (CV%) was determined with duplicate measurements of five subjects. CVs for the total bone BMD and CSA were 6.0% and 6.5%, respectively. On this basis, the calculated least significant changes for total bone BMD and CSA were 16.7% and 18.1%, respectively.

The majority of patients had ASA class II accounting for 61 0% of

The majority of patients had ASA class II accounting for 61.0% of cases (Figure 2). Figure 2 Distribution of patients according to ASA class. Treatment modalities All the 118 patients had exploration of the abdomen. Sixty-nine (58.5%) patients were operated on emergency bases while 49 (41.5%) patients had an elective surgery. Operative findings of tuberculous intestinal obstruction are depicted in Table 3. The most common area of involvement was the ileo-caecal region in 68 (57.6%) patients. This was followed by the terminal ileum and jejunum in 34 (28.8%) and 12 (10.2%) patients respectively. The colon was involved in 4 (3.4%) patients. The main lesion

causing obstruction was intestinal tuberculosis in Microbiology inhibitor the hypertrophic form in 86 (72.9%) patients. Table 3 Distribution of patients according to operative findings (N = 118) Operative findings Frequency Percentage Small bowel strictures (single/multiple) 86 72.9 Bands and adhesions WH-4-023 20 16.9 Bowel strictures and perforation 6 5.1 Ileocaecal mass 4 3.4 Enlarged

mesenteric lymph nodes 2 1,7 The right hemicolectomy with ileo-transverse anastomosis was the most common surgical procedure performed in 55.9% of the patients (Table 4). Postoperatively all the patients received antituberculous drugs for a period of one year. Table 4 Distribution of patients according to type of surgical procedures performed Type of surgical procedures Frequency Percentage Right hemicolectomy with ileo-transverse anastomosis 66 55.9 Segmental bowel resection with end to end anastomosis 28 23.7 Adhesion lysis 20 16.9 Ileo-transverse bypass procedure 2 1.7 Ileostomy 1 1.8 Stricturoplasty 1 1.8 Treatment outcome Post-operative complications Forty-four (37.3%) patients had 56 post-complications. Surgical site infection (SSI) was the most common post-operative complication accounting for 42.8% of cases (Table 5). In

the present study, the rate of SSI was found to be significantly higher in HIV positive patients than in non HIV patients (p = 0.011). Also higher rate of SSI was observed among HIV patients with CD 4 count below 200 cells/μl (p = 0.021). Table 5 Distribution of patients according to postoperative complications (N = 56) Postoperative complications Frequency Percentage Surgical site infections 24 42.9 Enterocutaneous fistula 6 10.7 Wound dehiscence/ burst abdomen 4 7.1 Paralytic ileus 4 7.1 Intraabdominal abscess/ Grape seed extract peritonitis 3 5.4 Keloids 3 5.4 Incisional hernia 2 3.6 Length of PCI-34051 order hospital stay The overall length of hospital stay (LOS) ranged from 1 to 64 days with a median of 24 days. The median LOS for non-survivors was 6 days (range 1-12 days). Patients who had post complications stayed longer in the hospital and this was statistically significant (p = 0.011). Mortality In this study, thirty-four patients died giving a mortality rate of 28.8%. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, co-existing medical illness (OR = 4.5, 95% C.I. (2.5- 8.9), p = 0.001), delayed presentation (OR = 11.3, 95% CI (7.

Its effective temperature is equal to 5164 ± 44 K, the gravitatio

Its effective temperature is equal to 5164 ± 44 K, the gravitational acceleration log(g) = 3.6 ± 0.1, the metallicity is [Fe/H] = − 0.15 ± 0.04. The mass of the star is 1.44 ± 0.09 M  ⊙ , and the radius amounts to 4.3 ± 0.09 R  ⊙ . The star distance from the Sun is 68.4 ± 4.8 pc and its age is about 3.0 ± 0.6 × 109 years. Two gas giants

orbit around the star with orbital periods respectively LEE011 manufacturer given by 613.8 and 825.0 days. The planets in this system most likely arrived at the present locations due to their interactions with the protoplanetary disc and in the process of the convergent migration formed the 4:3 commensurability (Johnson et al. 2011). However, as it has been shown by Kley (2000) and Nelson and Papaloizou (2002), the most probable final state of the convergent migration is the 2:1 resonance and not 4:3. So, how this commensurability could happen? The formation Selleck SN-38 of the 4:3 resonance depends on many circumstances including the initial separation of the planets, their masses, the viscosity in the disc and its mass (Malhotra 1993; Haghighipour 1999; Bryden et al. 2000; Snellgrove et al. 2001). The key property is the migration rate which, if it is sufficiently high, can cause that the planets will pass through the 2:1 commensurability and proceed toward the resonances with smaller ratio of the orbital periods, like for instance

the 4:3 resonance. PSR B1257+12   Here, it is the 3:2 commensurability. PSR B1257+12 is a millisecond pulsar, its distance from the Sun is 0.6 kpc. The standard mass for the pulsars is assumed to be 1.4 M  ⊙ , the age is evaluated at 3 × 109 years. The planets discovered in this system were the first extrasolar planets found (Wolszczan and Frail 1992). The parameters for this system are determined with a very high accuracy (Konacki and Wolszczan 2003), that is why it is one of the best systems for studying the formation of planets and their evolution. Particular attention has been devoted to the configuration of the planets B and C with masses around 4 m  ⊕ , which are close to the 3:2 resonance. Goździewski et al. (2005) have shown that this system with the parameters determined by Konacki and Wolszczan (2003) is stable in the timescale

of 109 years. HD 45364   HD 45364 is the second system described here, in which planets are Progesterone in the 3:2 resonance. The central star is of spectral type K0V (Hipparcos buy GW2580 Catalogue ESA 1997). Its effective temperature is 5434 ± 20 K, its gravitational acceleration is log(g) = − 4.38 ± 0.03, the metallicity amounts to [Fe/H] = − 0.17 ± 0.01 (Sousa et al. 2008). The mass of the star is 0.82 M  ⊙ . The system is located at the distance of 32.6 pc from the Sun. The precise measurements performed by means of the spectrograph HARPS allow for the discovery of two gas giants with masses less than that of Jupiter (Correia et al. 2009). The dynamical analysis has shown that the planets are in the 3:2 resonance and the system is stable in the timescale of about 5 × 109 years. Rein et al.

07, 4 56, and 5 70 nm when the molar concentration of NaOH is 0 8

07, 4.56, and 5.70 nm when the molar concentration of NaOH is 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 M (mol/l), respectively. It is pointed that the particle sizes calculated from the XRD pattern are considerably smaller than those determined from the SEM images. The analysis suggests that the spherical nickel Quisinostat particles may contain a number of ultra small crystals, which agrees with the observation of morphology. Preparation of coiled carbon fibers and corresponding mechanism The CCFs with a constant coil diameter and

coil pitch throughout a piece of the carbon coils could be obtained under the following reaction conditions: temperature of 750°C, time of 2 h, acetylene flow rate at 40 ml/min, hydrogen flow rate at 60 ml/min, and nitrogen flow rate at 100 ml/min. Meanwhile, the GS-1101 cell line liquid thiophene was heated to 40°C using a water bath kettle. The catalytic addictive was

introduced by the acetylene flow into liquid thiophene. From previous study [4–9], the characteristic parameters of helical carbon such as fiber diameter depend on the catalyst properties and reaction condition. To prepare high-purity carbon coils, the Ni nanoparticles prepared Selleckchem NSC 683864 at 70°C, keeping the molar concentration of NaOH solution at 0.8 M, were used as catalyst for CCFs. Figure 5 displays the typical product prepared at 750°C. There are almost all carbon microcoils with regular morphology, and the CCFs are all of double helix, having an average fiber diameter of about 600 nm and coil diameter of 3 μm. Coil gap ranges from zero to several hundred nanometers. It should be noted that the nickel particle size is thinner than those of carbon fiber synthesized in this work. In further experiments, a ceramic plate was placed into the reaction tube instead of graphite substrate, and Ni catalyst was evenly dispersed in the ceramic substrate. Although Levetiracetam other reaction conditions were unchanged, the uniformity of the as-prepared microhelix carbon fibers changes greatly as shown in Figure 6. The distortion of the helical fiber occurred randomly, indicating that the interaction between catalyst and ceramic substrate differs from graphite substrate.

Figure 5 SEM images of regular CMC. SEM images of (a) low magnification and (b) high magnification. The regular CMC was obtained using Ni particles on graphite substrate under the following conditions: reaction temperature of 750°C, N2 at 100 ml/min, H2 at 60 ml/min, C2H2 at 20 ml/min, and bathing temperature of thiophene at 40°C. The regular CMC are made up of double helical fibers A and B. Figure 6 SEM images of irregular CMC. SEM images of (a) low magnification and (b) high magnification. The irregular CMC was obtained using Ni particles on ceramic substrate under the following conditions: reaction temperature of 750°C, N2 at 100 ml/min, H2 at 60 ml/min, C2H2 at 20 ml/min, and bathing temperature of thiophene at 40°C.

Resistance training protocol Participants engaged

Resistance training protocol Participants engaged Torin 2 ic50 in a 4-day per week resistance-training program split into two upper and two lower extremity workouts per week for a total of seven weeks. The upper body resistance-training program consisted of nine exercises

(bench press, lat pull, shoulder press, seated rows, shoulder shrugs, chest flies, biceps curl, triceps press down, and abdominal curls) twice per week and a seven exercise lower extremity program (leg press or squat, back extension, step ups, leg curls, leg extension, heel raises, and abdominal crunches) performed twice per week. We have previously shown this program to be effective at promoting significant gains in muscle strength and mass [18]. Participants performed

3 sets of 8–10 repetitions with 70–80% 1-RM. Rest periods NVP-BSK805 mw between exercises lasted no longer than three minutes and rest between sets lasted no longer than two minutes. Training sessions were not supervised, but were documented in training logs, and signed off to verify compliance and to monitor progress. Muscle biopsies and venous blood sampling Based on our previously-established guidelines [18], at each of the four testing sessions at days 0, 6, 27, and 48 percutaneous muscle biopsies (50–70 mg) were obtained using a Bergstrom (5 mm) needle. Muscle samples were obtained from the middle portion of the vastus lateralis muscle of the dominant leg at the midpoint between the patella and the greater MEK inhibitor trochanter of the femur, at a depth between one and two cm. For the remaining three biopsies, attempts were made to extract tissue from approximately the same location as the initial biopsy by using the pre-biopsy scar, depth markings on the needle, and a successive incision that was made approximately

0.5 cm to the former from medial to lateral. After removal, the muscle specimens were immediately frozen Fenbendazole in liquid nitrogen and then stored at -80°C for later analysis. At each of the four testing sessions, venous blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein using a standard Vacutainer apparatus. Once collected, the samples were centrifuged for 15 minutes. The serum was removed and frozen at -80°C for later analysis. An 8-hour fast prior to blood donation was required for the participants before each of the four testing sessions. Muscle and serum creatine analysis Muscle tissue samples were analyzed spectrophotometrically for total creatine by the diacetyl/α-napthtol reaction [19]. Using similar methods, serum samples were measured in duplicate for creatine concentration. Serum samples were immediately ready for creatine analysis, whereas muscle tissue had to first be prepared. For serum creatine analysis, duplicates for all samples yielded a coefficient of variation of 5.4%.

8 mM final concentration The culture was grown for an additional

8 mM final concentration. The culture was grown for an additional 4 h, and then the biomass was collected by 10 min centrifugation at 4,000× g. All of the isolation steps were carried out at 4°C. The collected biomass was treated with DNase, RNase and lysozyme ARRY-438162 in vivo on ice for 1 h, as described by the manufacturer (QIAgen), and complete EDTA-free protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche) was added. The cells were ruptured with 12 consecutive ultrasonication bursts (alternating 30 s pulse, 30 s pause) at the 55 setting (Sonics Vibra Cell). The cell lysates were cleared by three

20 min centrifugations at 20,000× g. All of the other protein isolation steps were carried out. When needed, Imu3 was further purified with size-exclusion FPLC chromatography (Superdex 75 HR 10/30, Amersham Biosciences) equilibrated with 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, containing 0.15 M NaCl. Buffer exchanges were carried out using Amicon MWCO 3 kDa microconcentrators (Millipore). The his-tag was removed with the Thrombin Cleavage Capture Kit (Novagen) as described by the manufacturer. Actual mass of Imu3 protein was determined via mass spectrometry ESI + and Q-Tof (Waters-Micromass, United Kingdom). The degree of Usp-producing cell protection provided by each of the three individual immunity selleck chemicals proteins (Imu1-3) was examined in E. coli BL21(DE3) pLysE cells that were

transformed with the plasmid pET8c carrying the combination of Usp and either Imu1, Imu2 or Imu3. The transformants were isolated on LB Ap plates with IPTG (0.8 mM final concentration) after being grown overnight at 37°C. Imu3 and Usp binding Formation of a Imu3 dimer was checked using the cross-linking glutaraldehyde assay as previously described [20], native PAGE L-gulonolactone oxidase and size exclusion chromatography (HPLC). Imu3 samples (2 mg/mL) with or without the addition of 2.7 kbp double-stranded linear DNA (pUC19/EcoRI) were initially incubated at 37°C for 30 min, to allow for potential multimerization. Samples were then subjected to either native PAGE resolution or to the glutaraldehyde cross-linking procedure and Selleck ICG-001 SDS-PAGE resolution, with the LexA protein as a dimerisation-positive control. Aditionally, Imu3 was checked for

dimerisation with size exclusion chromatography (HPLC, Phenomenex Biosep SEC-S2000 column, flow rate: 1 mL/min, 50 mM NaH2PO4, 300 mM NaCl, pH8), self-cleaved LexA protein was used as a standard (11 kDa, 13 kDa and 26 kDa). Formation of the Imu3–USP complex was also investigated using the glutaraldehyde assay, after Imu3 and Usp had been mixed in equimolar ratios. DNA/RNA binding Various concentrations of either EcoRI linearised pUC19 DNA or total RNA (isolated from E. coli) and the Imu3 protein were used to establish the nucleic-acid-binding ability of Imu3. The Imu3 was incubated with either the DNA or RNA in TE buffer (10 mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8) at 37°C for 30 min, prior to the electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) with 0.8% agarose gels.

Br J Sports Med 2008, 42:725–730 CrossRefPubMed 19 Tsitsimpikou

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Comparing adolescent-focused obesity prevention and reduction messages. J Business Res 2009, 63:154–160.CrossRef 24. Goodall C, Appiah O: Adolescents’ perceptions of Canadian cigarette package warning labels: investigating the effects of message framing. Health Comm 2008,23(2):117–127.CrossRef 25. Grady JL, Entin EB, Entin EE, Brunye TT: Using message framing to achieve long-term behavioural changes in persons with diabetes. [http://​www.​appliednursingre​search.​org/​article/​S0897-1897(09)00030-5/​abstract] Appl Nursing Res 2009. 26. Lewis IM, Watson BC, Tay RS, White KM: The role of fear appeals in improving driver safety: a review of much the effectiveness of fear-arousing (threat) appeals in road safety advertising. [http://​eprints.​qut.​edu.​au/​8050/​] Int J Behav Consult Therapy 2007,3(2):203–222. 27. McBride NT, Farringdon FH, Kennedy CA: Research to practice – formal dissemination of the School Health and Alcohol Reduction Process (SHAARP) in Australia. [http://​onlinelibrary.​wiley.​com/​doi/​10.​1080/​0959523070161351​0/​abstract] Drug Alcohol Rev 2007,26(6):665–672.CrossRefPubMed 28. Michie S, Abraham C: Interventions

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1]   2 2-VIII Enterococcus sp (99%) [GenBank:AB470317 1]   2, 1

1]   2 2-VIII Enterococcus sp. (99%) [GenBank:AB470317.1]   2, 1 2-III, 1-3I Lactobacillus salivarius (99%) [GenBank:FJ378897.1]

  2 V Lactobacillus coryniformis (99%) [GenBank:HQ293050.1] 11 1, 1 1-4I, 1-12I Enterococcus sp. (99%) [GenBank:AB470317.1]   1 1-8I Pediococcus acidilactici (99%) [GenBank:GU904688.1]   1 1-11I Enterococcus durans (99%) [GenBank:HM218637.1]   2, 1, 3, 1, 1 2-I, 1-1I, 1(6I, 5I,7I), 1-3I, 1-2I Enterococcus IWR-1 cell line faecium (99%) [GenBank:U385351.1] 12 10 5-IV Pediococcus acidilactici (99%) [GenBank:GU904688.1] Stattic chemical structure   1 1-6I Enterococcus sp. (99%) [GenBank:AB470317.1] 13 1 3I Enterococcus sp. (99%) [GenBank:AB470317.1]   1, 7 1-VII, 3-XVIII Enterococcus faecium (99%) [GenBank:HQ293070.1] 14 8, 2 4-III, 2-IX Enterococcus avium (99%) [GenBank:HQ169120.1]   1 1-IV Pediococcus acidilactici (99%) [GenBank:GU904688.1]   2, 1, 1, 2 2-I, 1-22I, 1-III, 2-VI Lactobacillus plantarum (99-100%) [GenBank:HQ441200.1] 15 8, 1 8-IV, 1-2I Pediococcus acidilactici (99%) [GenBank:GU904688.1]   1 1-8I Enterococcus sp. (99%) [GenBank:AB470317.1]   1 1-XVIII Enterococcus faecium (99%) [GenBank:HQ293070.1]   1 1-III Lactobacillus casei (99%) [GenBank:HQ379174.1] 16 2 2-X Enterococcus faecium (99%) [GenBank:AB596997.1]   2, 8 2-XV, 7-XXI Streptococcus pasteurianus (99%) [GenBank:AB457024.1]   3 1(13I-14I-5I) TPCA-1 ic50 Enterococcus sp. (99%) [GenBank:AB470317.1] 17 1 1-VI Enterococcus faecium (99%) [GenBank:AB596997.1]   8 7-XII Enterococcus

avium (99%) [GenBank:HQ169120.1]   3, 1 2-XIII, 1-13I Enterococcus sp. (99%) [GenBank:AB470317.1] 18 6, 6 3-VI, 2-XVII Enterococcus faecium (99%) [GenBank:AB596997.1]   1 1-13I Enterococcus sp. (99%) [GenBank:AB470317.1]   3 3-II Lactobacillus rhamnosus (99%) [GenBank:HM218396.1] PRKACG Treated celiac disease (T-CD) children   1 1-14Ib Lactobacillus casei (99%) [GenBank:HQ318715.2] 19 1 1-VII Enterococcus durans (99%) [GenBank:HM218637.1]   6 5-III Lactobacillus salivarius (99%) [GenBank:FJ378897.1]

  2 2-III Lactobacillus paracasei (99%) [GenBank:HQ423165.1]   1, 4, 1 24I, 3-III, 23I Lactobacillus casei (99%) [GenBank:HQ379174.1]   3 3-V Lactobacillus coryniformis 99%) [GenBank:HQ293050.1] Heathy children (HC) 20 3 1-III Enterococcus sp. (99%) [GenBank:AB470317.1]   1, 6 1-2I, 3-VII Enterococcus avium (99%) [GenBank:HQ169120.1]   2 2-XIII Enterococcus faecalis (99%) [GenBank:HQ228219.1]   1 1-6I Lactobacillus plantarum (99%) [GenBank:EF439680.1] 21 3, 5 3-VI, 4-VII Enterococcus avium (99%) [GenBank:HQ169120.1]   2 2-XII Enterococcus sp. (99%) [GenBank:AB470317.1]   1, 1 1-3I, 1-XI Lactobacillus plantarum (99%) [GenBank:EF439680.1] 22 1, 1 1-III, 1-10I Enterococcus sp. (99%) [GenBank:AB470317.1]   4 3-VI Enterococcus faecium(99%) [GenBank:DQ305313.1]   5 5-VI Enterococcus avium (99%) [GenBank:HQ169120.1]   1 1-9I Enterococcus durans (99%) [GenBank:HM218738.1]   1 1-XI Lactobacillus plantarum (99%) [GenBank:EF439680.1]   1 1-11I Lactobacillus mucosae (99%) [GenBank:AB425938.1] 23 3 3-III Enterococcus sp. (99%) [GenBank:AB470317.

Loubet et al [35] proposed a flat-ended punch model to estimate

Loubet et al. [35] proposed a flat-ended punch model to estimate the stiffness of the specimen. Later, Hay et al. [36] showed that since the boundary conditions used in elastic contact models allow for inward displacement of the surface, a shape factor of the indenter, β, is introduced: (12) where S is the stiffness of the test material, obtained from the initial unloading slope at maximum load and maximum depth; A is the projected

contact area of the indenter at maximum loading condition; and E r is the reduced modulus or combined modulus. The value of shape factor β for a cylindrical indenter is 1 [37]. E r represents a balance between Young’s modulus of the sample, E s, EVP4593 purchase and that of the indenter, E i, because both the sample and the indenter experience elastic deformation during the indentation process: (13) where E and v are Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio for the specimen, respectively, and E 0 selleck compound and v 0 are the same parameters for the diamond indenter, respectively. The copper property used in this study’s calculation is v = 0.3 [38]. Since the diamond indenter in this study is assumed to be perfectly rigid with

E 0 = ∞, Equation 13 can be simplified as (14) Combining it with Equation 12, we obtain (15) In the end, the calculated Young’s modulus values of copper are 194.1 and 255.3 GPa for wet indentation (case 1) and dry indentation (case 2), respectively. Young’s modulus measured by dry indentation is significantly greater than that measured by wet indentation. This is attributed to its higher stiffness as observed during the initial unloading period from the load-unload curve, as shown in Figure 7. Figure 7 Load-unload curve for wet and dry indentations (cases 1 and 2). Furthermore, regarding the hardness and Young’s modulus measurements of the copper material, a comparison between this study and the literature is made in Table 5. The results of

MD simulation in this study are compared with the results obtained in other MD simulation studies of dry nano-indentation, as well as the experimental measurements obtained at micro- and nano-scale in the literature. From the table, the hardness and Young’s modulus values obtained in our study are overall consistent with other PtdIns(3,4)P2 MD simulation studies in the literature. However, all the MD simulation studies produce higher values of hardness and Young’s modulus than the existing experiment studies. The large discrepancy is due to the scale differences between MD simulation and experiment. The simulation assumes a SRT1720 cell line perfect structure of single-crystalline copper lattice at the nano/atomistic scale, which is smaller than any existing nano-indentation experiments. Within the regular high-purity copper, many defects exist such as grain boundaries and precipitates at the grain boundaries.