The potential difference between the reference electrode and the

The potential difference between the reference electrode and the indicator electrode is measured at zero current flow. The ideally nonpolarizable reference electrode provides a constant potential, while the indicator electrode shows an erratic potential depending on the concentration of the analytes. The zero current potentials applied between those two electrodes are recorded as a function of the concentrations of target analytes in a logarithmic manner [48]. The potential difference at the electrode-electrolyte interface arising from unbalanced activities of species i in the electrolyte phase (s) and in the electrode phase (��) is related by the following Nernst equation:E=Eo+RTZiF ln aisai��(2)where E0 is the standard electrode potential, R the gas constant, T the absolute temperature, F the faraday constant, ai the activity of species i, and Zi the number of moles of electron involved.

Potentiometric sensors are divided into the metal-oxide sensitive field effect transistor (MOSFET), the light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), the ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFET) and the ion-selective electrodes (ISE). Ali et al. developed a commercial MOSFET using a GOx modified ZnO nanowire. GOx-functionalized ZnO nanowires were grown on the Ag wire and then directly connected to the MOSFET gate (Figure 1) [54]. They tested the response time and the stability of the MOSFET sensor by using three different GOx/ZnO modified Ag electrodes, i.e.

, vertically aligned, uniform nonaligned, and nonuniform nonaligned ZnO nanowires.

The results showed that well aligned ZnO-modified electrode displayed a good stability, short response time (<100 ms), and improved detection limit. They also further demonstrated that the GOx/ZnO modified MOSFET is able to be used for the immobilization of other biomolecules to make versatile electrodes for biosensing.Figure 1.Schematic Brefeldin_A illustration of the configuration of the MOSFET-based potentiometric glucose detection using an extended-gate functionalized-ZnO nanowire as a working electrode and the Ag/AgCl reference electrode (reproduced with permission from [54]. Copyright …

ISFETs and LAPS AV-951 have attracted much attention for biosensing application being especially convenient for construction. The principles of LAPS are based on the activation of semiconductor by a light emitting diode [55]. Seki et al. developed a LAPS based on SiO2/Al2O3 film grown on an n-type Si substrate. The GOx was immobilized on the film at various pH in the range of 3 to 11. Upon exposure to the light emitting diode, the equilibrium potential of the GOx-modified SiO2/Al2O3 film was increased linearly with the increase of glucose concentration up to 4 mM.

cy on FM and FO and its replacement with alternative ingredients,

cy on FM and FO and its replacement with alternative ingredients, such as vege table oils and plant meals, while maintaining fish welfare and health benefits for the human consumer. Fish are highly nutritious components of the human diet and the main source of essential n 3 long chain polyun saturated fatty acids. The beneficial effects of fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are numerous and import ant, including protection against a range of cardiovascu lar and inflammatory diseases, as well as neurological disorders. Atlantic salmon can grow well on diets where FO has been completely replaced by VO but this results in lower levels of n 3 LC PUFA in their flesh, compromising their nutritional value and health promoting effects to the human consumer.

The use of selective breeding programs to enhance traits of commercial importance is becoming increas ingly common in aquaculture. Entinostat It has been suggested that combining genetic selection for fish that are more efficient in retaining and or biosynthesising n 3 LC PUFA with changes in commercial diet formulations might be a viable strat egy to meet growing worldwide demands for aquaculture products, without loss of nutritional value. Previous studies have shown wide individual variability in the capacity of Atlantic salmon to retain or synthesize n 3 LC PUFA when fed VO diets. Following this, Leaver et al. demonstrated that deposition and or retention in flesh of dietary n 3 LC PUFA, EPA and DHA, is a highly heritable trait in salmon.

These results have prompted further interest in large scale in depth studies exploring genotype �� nutrient interactions in sal mon, analysing whether the genetic background of the fish could affect the physiological response to complete dietary replacement of FO by VO. In the present study we investigated this further by analyzing the tran scriptome from liver, the primary site of synthesis and export of lipids to extra hepatic tissues including flesh, from four Atlantic salmon families phenotyped for dif ferent levels of flesh n 3 LC PUFA content in response to a VO diet. The objective was to identify gene path ways and molecular mechanisms that might underlie differences in flesh n 3 LC PUFA contents when salmon families were fed the same low LC PUFA diet.

Further more, because n 3 LC PUFA level is a component of, and associated with total lipid content in a tissue, a fac torial design was chosen in which families containing higher and lower proportions of flesh n 3 LC PUFA were compared at similar flesh total lipid contents. Results Family lipid contrasts Lipid analysis of fifty Atlantic salmon families showed flesh lipid levels ranging from 2. 3 to 5. 7% of wet weight, with relative and absolute n 3 LC PUFA contents vary ing from 71 to 136 and 314 to 554, respectively. As expected, high correlations between lipid level and n 3 LC PUFA content were observed, indicating that only families with near identical lipid levels should be compare

As this problem has not been encountered before there is no algor

As this problem has not been encountered before there is no algorithm to solve it. This is another significant contribution of this paper. In the appendix, we derive an efficient solution to this rank-deficient group-sparse recovery problem.The next section describes the theory behind the proposed method. Section 3 describes the experimental results. The conclusions of the work are discussed in Section 4. The derivation of the algorithm is relegated to the appendix since it may not be of interest to the majority of readers.2.?Theory2.1. Literature ReviewThe previous work that is directly relevant to us is found in [4,5]. Multi-echo images pertain to the same cross section and only vary in tissue contrasts; the positions of edges (tissue boundaries) remain the same in all images.

The wavelet transform encodes the discontinuities in images. The wavelet coefficients have high values along edges and are zeroes or near zeroes in smooth areas. Since the edges of the multi-echo images are aligned, the wavelet transform of the images will have high values at similar positions (along edges) in the different images. When the wavelet transform coefficients of different images are stacked as column vectors of a Multiple Measurement Vector (MMV) matrix, the resulting matrix is row-sparse (such a matrix is of size n �� N, assuming that the wavelet coefficient vector is of length n and there are N such echo images). The MMV matrix is row-sparse since Carfilzomib only those rows that correspond to edge positions have high values and the rest of the rows are zeroes or near zeroes [4].

Alternately the transform coefficients of the N echoes can be concatenated into a vector of length nN. The thus formed long vector can be grouped according to positions, i.e., the jth group is formed by collecting the jth coefficient of the transform coefficients of each one of the N echoes. There will be n such groups of size N and the concatenated wavelet coefficient vector will be group-sparse [5]. Thus one can see that row-sparsity and group-sparsity are the same; these two forms arise out of the difference in arranging the vectors.The aforesaid studies use two prior pieces of information��that the images are spatially redundant and are correlated with each other. The wavelet transform decorrelates the spatial redundancies in the individual images leading to a sparse representation; the fact that concatenated wavelet transform coefficients form a row-sparse matrix [4] or a group-sparse vector [5] arises from the inter-image correlation.In this work, we follow the same assumptions as [4,5] but improve upon their results by incorporating more information regarding the solution.

A microporous hydrophobic membrane contactor was coupled to a WS-

A microporous hydrophobic membrane contactor was coupled to a WS-CRDS for high-resolution water measurements by Herbstritt et al. [19]. Munksgaard et al. developed a sampling device for continuous water analysis with WS-CRDS using diffusion through porous polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) tubing [20].Stream solutes are typically grab-sampled or taken by automatic sampling devices and then analyzed in the laboratory. Alternatively, portable probes for in situ detection such as ion-selective probes can be used directly in the field. These probes are practical for studies where higher detection limits are necessary and frequent site visits are feasible [21]. Recently, developments in new hyperspectral UV photometers have resulted in small and reagent-free systems for water analysis at low detection limits.

With these new instruments it is now possible to observe the closely related hydrological and biogeochemical fluxes of water, C and N as proposed by Chen and Coops [22]. Sandford et al. showed the general utility of a hyperspectral UV photometer in surface water application for analyses of nitrate and nitrite [23]. Others have used similar instruments to measure dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in bog streams [24] and blackwaters of the Amazon [25]. In principal, such instruments can detect these C and N solutes at the same time [26].Here we present a new type of automatic sampling set-up that facilitates in situ analysis of hydrometric information, stable water isotopes and nitrate concentrations in spatially differentiated agricultural fields.

Entinostat As proof-of-concept the system is installed in differently managed rice paddies. After an in-depth description of the sampling setup we present the software we have developed for remote control of the system via the Internet. We conclude with a number of example measurements.2.?Materials and Methods2.1. Experimental SitesThis work is part of the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary Research Unit ��Introducing Non-Flooded Crops in Rice-Dominated Landscapes: Impact on Carbon, Nitrogen, and Water Cycles�� (ICON) which focuses on the ecological impact of future changes in rice production in Southeast Asia. The principal objective is to gain necessary process understanding that will facilitate maintenance of fundamental ecosystem services, decrease environmental impacts and increase the output of high-yield cropping systems. For this purpose the effects of altered flooding regimes (flooded vs. non-flooded), crop div
The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) behavior of free electrons or plasma at the interface of a metal-dielectric material has been widely studied [1�C4].

(Bottom) Features that are pertinent to seizure detection are ext

(Bottom) Features that are pertinent to seizure detection are extracted …2.1. Transmission of Entire Raw EEGAt every sampling period, the EEG signals are sampled and transmitted to the data server without any preprocessing. Depending on the data size of one time sample of the EEG signals and the maximum payload size of a data packet, the transmission of the EEG signals may be broken up into multiple data packets.2.2. Transmission of Compressed EEGOne possible alternative to transmitting the entire EEG signals is to compress the raw EEG data before their transmission. Data compression reduces the number of bits by exploring the redundancy in the signals. A rich body of EEG compression algorithms has been proposed in the literature [11]. They vary in the lossiness, spatial or temporal redundancy being explored and the transformation used.

While many of these algorithms are able to achieve high compression ratios (CRs), a crucial factor in our study is their computational complexity. The power consumed by the microcontroller to perform one of these algorithms can potentially outstrip the power saved by reducing the amount of data transmission.Recently, the application of compressive sensing (CS) on EEG compression has shown great promise in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The idea of CS is to exploit the redundancy (i.e., compressibility or sparsity) of an input signal using random sampling techniques, such that the signal can be reconstructed from fewer samples than required by the Nyquist rate.

The so-called
Magnetic bearings have some advantages such as no mechanical friction, no wear, no lubrication, long life, and high reliability, therefore, they can be applied in flywheels [1], air compressors, molecular pumps, turbines, generators, and bearingless motors [2�C5]. To decrease the power losses of magnetic bearings, the permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing, which is also called hybrid magnetic bearing, is adopted widely [6�C9]. In magnetic bearing systems, displacement sensors, Brefeldin_A which can detect the rotor’s displacement in five degrees of freedom (DOF) along the corresponding direction, are necessary. The most frequently used displacement sensors are the eddy current sensors since they have high resolution and wide bandwidth in active magnetic bearing systems [10�C13].

This type of sensor is very easily influenced by the magnetic field generated in magnetic bearing coils and so should be installed outside the coils [14]. Consequently, radial displacement sensors are designed to separate from the radial magnetic bearings in general, and a large axial length will be used, so the rotor modal shape is low, and bending vibrations of the rotor will be produced, resulting in a lower maximum high speed of the magnetically suspended motor (HSMSM).In addition, eddy current sensors mainly include preamplifier circuits and probes, which are integrated in the HSMSM.

It is given by:T0��?��j=1m|Sx1x2(��j)|?(��j)��j��j=1m|Sx1x2(��j)|

It is given by:T0��?��j=1m|Sx1x2(��j)|?(��j)��j��j=1m|Sx1x2(��j)|��j2(5)Note that Equation (5) is exact only if the phase is linear (pure delay) without any significant distortion, e.g., distortions due to the dynamics of the system, and if the phase passes through the origin (i.e., = 0 at �� = 0). Otherwise it provides a least-square best-fit of the time delay estimate. Moreover, the correct choice of the frequency bandwidth over which the calculation is performed is essential for the accuracy of this estimate [12,13]. Given these conditions it is possible to determine the time delay from the gradient of a straight line fit to the phase spectrum weighted by the modulus of the cross-spectrum at each frequency. This demonstrates the importance of the modulus of the cross-spectrum, as well as the phase in the calculation of the time delay.

3.?Filtering Effect of the Pipe and SensorsIn this section, the simple model of the pipe-sensor system proposed in [11], is briefly reviewed with specific focus on the plastic pipe system used in the experimental work reported in Section 4. This model is extremely simple, but it is believed that it captures the main dynamic effects of the pipe and the sensor, which determine the bandwidth over which leak noise can be measured in practice, and the shape of the cross-correlation function. An infinite pipe is assumed, so that there are no wave reflections at pipe discontinuities. Furthermore, basic models of the transducer response are assumed (i.e., dynamics due to internal resonances in the transducers are neglected).

As the noise propagates through the pipe, the high frequencies are attenuated because of damping in the pipe-wall and radiation of noise into the surrounding medium. Moreover the signals are further filtered by the sensors. The combined effect of the pipe and the sensors can be described by the frequency response function (FRF) between the acoustic pressure at the leak location and the sensor output (pressure, velocity or acceleration).
Time variable deformation of the Earth caused by ocean tides could reach up to 100 mm at some special coast regions [1,2]. With the growing demands for high precision geodetic observations, ocean tidal loading (OTL) correction has come a must in precise global positioning system (GPS) data processing with baseline lengths of up to several thousand kilometers.

Up to now, many ocean tide models (OTMs) were provided by the ocean loading service [3], and geodetic users could easily implement OTL corrections by introducing global grid or station list files for different Cilengitide OTMs. The accuracy of the OTL values depend on the errors in the OTM, Green’s function, coastline representation as well as the numerical scheme of the loading computation itself. Currently, the largest contributor to the uncertainty of the loading value is the errors of the OTM itself.

Figure 1 Cross-section view of BJT Figure 2 BTJ Spectral response

Figure 1.Cross-section view of BJT.Figure 2.BTJ Spectral responses [1].In the past few years, artificial neural networks (ANNs) have emerged in many engineering applications as a learning technique to achieve complex tasks, as well as image analysis, high nonlinear modeling and system control [4,5]. They present interesting characteristics, such as the capability of universal approximation, generalization, and fault tolerance [6]. Furthermore, it is shown that ANNs based approximation of measurement data perform better than those of classical methods of data interpolation, in particular the mean square regression [7]. Thus, ANNs are commonly used for measurement sensor systems, in this scope, several works has been reported in [8�C20], where the aims of their applications are to increase the selectivity, sensitivity, and reliability of many sensor types.

This work carries this ideas one step further by applying similar techniques for wavelength readout, structured in a row of BTJs, in purpose of an embedded system for real time applications; featuring relative low full-scale error and a compatibility with BICMOS process which increase the system portability.2.?Modeling and Problem FormulationThe basic structure of the CMOS BTJ is illustrated in Figure 1. Three buried junctions are stacked between p-subtract to n+ diffusion, thus the device has three outputs through contacts in the peripheral areas: p+ diffusion, n+ diffusion and n-well. All junctions operate in reverse bias mode by applying external voltages VA, VB and VC (with VB < 0, VA > VC > 0).

In principle, the absorption of visible light in the silicon bulk induces generation of electron-hole pairs; where the generation rate depends on the wavelength of the incident light and on the depth from the silicon surface. Therefore, three stacked junctions result different spectral responses depending on the junction depth [1,21,22]. Figure 2 shows an example of BJT spectral response given at room temperature, the characterized cell is fabricated using 1.2 ��m standard BICMOS process Entinostat with an area of 28 by 28 ��m [1]. The spectral response curves are approximated with fifth degree polynomials (1), with a limited precision.In=��i=05ain.��i(1)where, �� is the wavelength and In is the photocurrent of the three junctions. This analytical approach can be used to get a linear transformation between the light wavelength and the currents measurement. In this case, the photocurrent variation versus light power and temperature is assumed linear.Obviously, the device can detect either light intensity or wavelength variation. Indeed, the resulting currents are proportional to both variations, while the photocurrent ratio is sensitive to the optical wavelength [23].

The servo pneumatic cylinder serves to position in coarse range w

The servo pneumatic cylinder serves to position in coarse range with high speed and large stroke; the piezoelectric actuator positions in fine stroke for c
Enzymes are fundamental to life and are used in many biotechnological processes. Therefore, enzymatic activity is an important parameter in many contexts. In favourable cases an enzymatic reaction can be directly followed with spectroscopy in the UV or visible spectral range. In these cases the substrate or product of an enzymatic reaction is coloured, like for the NAD+ / NADH system, or light is emitted in the course of the reaction, like in the reaction of luciferase with ATP and luciferin.In most cases, however, substrate and product cannot be distinguished in the UV or visible range of the spectrum and enzyme activity has to be determined indirectly.

For this, coloured or fluorescent substrate analogues have been developed or the enzymatic reaction of interest has to be coupled to auxiliary enzymatic reactions that can be followed in the UV or Dacomitinib visible spectral range. An example is the coupled enzyme assay for the measurement of ATPase activity. The assay couples ATP hydrolysis catalysed by the enzyme of interest to the oxidation of NADH via the auxiliary enzymes pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase.This ��state of the art�� Cilengitide of activity measurements implies that for a ��new�� enzymatic reaction an activity assay or a suitable substrate analogue has to be developed.

This is often time-consuming, the modification of the substrate may affect the activity and applying the activity assay can be cumbersome, slow and may be limited to specific experimental conditions required by the assay.

Therefore, in order to speed up the development of biotechnological processes and to save costs, techniques that monitor enzymatic reactions directly are highly desirable.Infrared spectroscopy can provide such a direct, ��on-line�� monitor of enzymatic reactions, because the spectrum depends on the structure and environment of a molecule. When a molecular structure is modified in an enzymatic reaction, the infrared spectrum is altered and changes in infrared absorption can be followed to monitor the progress of the reaction.

These constrains define limits of applicability of time-averaged

These constrains define limits of applicability of time-averaged laser holography in engineering applications. The laser wavelength if usually a fixed constant (�� = 632.8 nm, for HeNe laser). Thus one must pre-assess the results of the optical experiment.All schematic diagrams in figure are based on the assumption that the FTY720 IC50 illumination and the observation directions are perpendicular to the plane of the beam in the state of equilibrium (in the par-axial model). In general case the distribution of
The work is motivated by the fact that with the advent of fully digital telecommunications in the past decade, the real-time digital signal processing in the radio frequency (RF) domain has quickly moved from theoretical outlines to engineering practice.

This has allowed replacing some blocks of traditional analog electronics by software algorithms in many types of servo-loops. A similar situation is seen in the fundamental metrology of precise time and frequency. These quantities are processed very often by optical frequency combs which Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries have become important instruments in the field of measuring optical frequencies of continuous-wave (CW) laser sources [1]. These instruments are also called optical frequency synthesizers because they are able to transfer the relative stability of RF signals to the optical frequency domain and vice versa [2,3].In principle, the optical frequency comb is based on a femtosecond mode-locked laser. It generates a train of pulses, which Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries from the signal processing point of view is an optical-frequency carrier modulated by a radio-frequency (RF) pulsed envelope.

Pulse widths are typically in the range of tens of femtoseconds up to 1 Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries ps. According to signal processing theory, such waveforms are transformed into a set of evenly spaced components in the frequency domain. The spacing of these components is equal to the repetition frequency frep of the pulses and the offset of these pulses with respect to zero is dependent on the carrier-to-envelope frequency, the so called offset frequency fceo. Hence the output of a system like this can be seen as a set of many lasers working synchronously at the same time at evenly spaced optical frequencies. The optical frequency of a certain spectral component ��i can be easily described by the following formula [4]:��i=fceo+i?frep(1)where i is the index of the spectral component; frep is usually from tens to several hundreds of MHz and fceo is in the range from 0 Hz to frep.

The width of the optical spectrum of generated femtosecond pulses Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries depends mainly on the width of a gain spectrum profile of the active media of the mode-locked laser. Incase of an infrared Er3+ doped Batimastat fiber femtosecond laser the output spectrum is typically 200 nm wide and finds itself ARQ197 FDA around a 1550 nm central wavelength [5,6].The transfer of the relative stability of a radiofrequency signal to the optical domain is based on this technology of femtosecond optical synthesizers [7,8].

Some researchers have developed first-order kinetic models for de

Some researchers have developed first-order kinetic models for degradation of vitamin C in juice during storage [2]. However, there is little information available in the literature about the kinetics of vitamin C content in fresh jujube during storage.Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has recently attracted a great deal of attention as a non-destructive method for Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries detecting the internal quality of fruits. A vast amount of research has been conducted using NIR spectroscopy to detect the quality of fruits, such as taste characterization in Valencia oranges [6]; soluble solids content (SSC) and firmness in apples [7]; acidity, soluble solids and firmness in Satsuma mandarin [8]; and vitamin C in Navel orange [9]. Van et al.

[10] applied kinetic and near-infrared models to describe firmness and moisture loss with time change at constant external condition, respectively.The objectives of this study were: (1) to optimize the NIR spectroscopy model of the vitamin C content of fresh jujube to predict the vitamin C content changes during storage Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries at room temperature; (2) to build a kinetic model of vitamin C content according to NIR spectroscopy and storage time at room temperature; and (3) to predict the shelf life of fresh jujube at room temperature.2.?Material and Methods2.1. Sample PreparationSeventy-two intact ��Lizao�� jujube fruits weighing 25�C30 g were hand-harvested from an orchard in Dali, Shaanxi Province, China in the year 2012. The 72 samples were labeled, randomly divided into 18 groups and put on the tray, then stored at room temperature (20 ��C).

Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries The weight of each sample was measured and recorded before spectroscopic measurements. One group of samples was selected every day for the experiment. In other words, the experiment lasted for 18 days since the experiential decay period at room temperature is 15 days).2.2. Spectral MeasurementsSpectra were measured by using a Fourier transform near-infrared spectrometer (BRUKER MPA, Ettlingen, Germany) equipped with the OPUS 6.5 optical software. The spectrometer was allowed to warm up for about 30 min, and all spectra were obtained using a fiber optic probe with a wavenumber range of 12,000�C4,000 cm?1 at 8 cm?1 intervals and a scan number of 64. A spectral white panel was used as reference to eliminate interference by the light source itself. The samples were divided to 18 groups.

Every group had four samples. At the first day, the spectra of 72 samples were obtained, and the four samples of group one were adopted to measure the vitamin C content. At the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries second day, the spectra of the remaining 68 samples were obtained, and the four samples of group two were adopted Dacomitinib to measure the vitamin C content. At the 18th day, only four samples selleck chemicals llc were left. The spectra of the remaining four samples were obtained to measure the vitamin C content. Therefore, the samples of group one have one spectrum, the samples of group two have two spectra, the samples of group three have three spectra, etc.