Geochemical and other data indicate that, at the time the dinosau

Geochemical and other data indicate that, at the time the dinosaurs first appeared, the atmospheric oxygen concentration was only about half of what it is today, and development of the avian-type respiratory system

may have been key in the dinosaurs’ evolutionary success, enabling them to out-compete the mammals and dominate the land for 150 million years.”
“(Early development of Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae Caesalpinioideae) in Cerrado under different soil fertility conditions). Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients check details (NPK) and lime doses to be used in each treatment were defined, resulting in a combination of two liming levels and three fertilization levels. After 220 days, the treatments that significantly increased seedling growth were the one whose substrate was limed and fertilized with twice the prescribed NPK dosage, and the one with the indicated dosage of NPK but no liming. Liming itself did not EGFR signaling pathway promote growth enhancement, but favored increased growth response to increasing levels of

nutrient availability. Root nodules were found in all the treatments, and the results led to the conclusion that D. wilsonii nutritional requirements are consistent with its original distribution sites in the

Cerrado Domain. It was also possible to highlight nitrogen biological fixation, an unusual feature in Caesalpinioideae, as an adaptive strategy for survival in areas of low nutrient availability.”
“Parodiolyra is a member of Olyreae, a tribe of herbaceous bamboo species within the Poaceae. The genus has five species, four of which were previously regarded as belonging to Olyra L. Parodiolyra has a Neotropical distribution and only two species occur on forests in Eastern Brazil: P. micrantha (Kunth) Zuloaga & Davidse and P. ramosissima (Trin.) Soderstr. & Zuloaga, the first widely distributed in the Neotropics while the second is endemic to the state of Bahia. Leaf anatomy Selleck HDAC inhibitor of the two species was analysed with the aid of an optical microscope. The objective was to describe the microscopic characters and evaluate if they can be useful for the taxonomy of the genus. The observed anatomical structures did not differ from other genera of herbaceous bamboos, however some characters, both from the mesophyll and the epidermis, were useful to delimit the two species.”
“Background: Intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are associated with poor clinical and economic outcomes.

Biopsies were taken irrespective of the clinical features of weal

Biopsies were taken irrespective of the clinical features of weal eruption. Other diseases known to be associated with small-vessel vasculitis had previously been excluded.\n\nResults. Individual weals lasted < 24 h in 57.4% of patients, and pain or tenderness was reported only by 8.6%. Extracutaneous features were present in 81%, hypocomplementaemia in 11% and abnormalities of other laboratory parameters (i.e. raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate, microscopic haematuria) in 76.6%. Hydroxyzine was effective in only one patient. Both oral corticosteroids and cinnarizine were effective in a high percentage of the patients.\n\nConclusion. This diagnostic

this website approach allowed us to identify a large group (47 patients) with UV. Most did not present the clinical (prolonged duration

of weals and bruising) and laboratory features that have previously been described as characteristic of UV. Cinnarizine MAPK Inhibitor Library solubility dmso was found to be a valuable treatment option.”
“The association between ambient temperature and lung function in children with asthma is still uncertain. A panel of 270 children (aged 7-12 years) with asthma was recruited from six Australian cities. They performed three successive forced expiratory manoeuvres twice daily for 4 weeks. The highest peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were stored for each session. During the same period, data were https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Staurosporine.html obtained

daily on ambient temperature, relative humidity and air pollution. Mixed models were used to examine the effects of temperature on lung function, controlling for individual characteristics and environmental factors. Ambient temperature was negatively related to both morning and evening PEF and FEV1 for 0-3 days lag. In general, the effects of temperature were stronger in males than in females for evening PEF, while the effects were stronger in females for evening FEV1. Children with asthma living in southern cities were more sensitive to high temperature than those in the northernmost city. Higher ambient temperature is associated with lower lung function in children with asthma. Preventive health policies will be required to protect children with asthma from increasingly frequent high temperatures.”
“The depth, pattern, timing and duration of unconsciousness, including sleep, vary greatly in inflammatory disease, and are regarded as reliable indicators of disease severity. Similarly, these indicators are applicable to the encephalopathies of sepsis, malaria, and trypanosomiasis, and to viral diseases such as influenza and AIDS. They are also applicable to sterile neuroinflammatory states, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, traumatic brain injury, stroke and type-2 diabetes, as well as in iatrogenic brain states following brain irradiation and chemotherapy.

001) However, TH increased phase singularity number (wavebreaks)

001). However, TH increased phase singularity number (wavebreaks) during VF (P<0.05) and Si pacing (P<0.05). TH resulted in earlier onset of APD alternans (P<0.001), which was predominantly SDA (P<0.05), and increased pacing-induced VF episodes (P<0.05). TH also decreased CV, shortened wavelength, and enhanced APD dispersion and the spatial heterogeneity of CV restitution.\n\nConclusions: TH (30 degrees C) increased the vulnerability of pacing-induced VF by (1) facilitating wavebreaks during VF and Si pacing, and (2) enhancing proarrhythmic electrophysiological parameters, including promoting

earlier onset of APD alternans (predominantly SDA) during Mizoribine manufacturer S1 pacing. (Circ J 2009; 73: 2214-2222)”
“Brain metastasis has become an increasing cause of

morbidity NCT-501 solubility dmso and mortality in cancer patients as the treatment of systemic disease has improved. Brain metastases frequently are highly vascularized, a process driven primarily by VEGF. VEGF mediates numerous changes within the vasculature including endothelial cell retraction and increased permeability, vasodilation, and new vessel formation. Here we describe a xenograft brain metastasis model that mimics the critical steps of metastasis including tumor cell dissemination and vascular adhesion, tumor growth and tumor associated angiogenesis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to evaluate two aspects of the functional response of brain metastasis to the anti-VEGF receptor therapeutic, AZD2171 (Cediranib, RECENTIN (TM)). MR tracking of individual cells demonstrated that cediranib did not impede tumor

cell extravasation into the brain parenchyma despite evidence that anti-VEGF treatment decreases the permeability of the blood brain barrier. In a second assay, blood volume imaging using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide revealed that treatment of well-developed brain metastasis with cediranib for 7 days led to a heterogeneous response with respect to individual tumors. Overall, there was a significant average decrease in the tumor vascular bed volume. The majority of large tumors demonstrated substantially reduced central blood volumes relative to normal brain while retaining a rim of elevated blood volume at JQ-EZ-05 chemical structure the tumor brain interface. Small tumors or occasional large tumors displayed a static response. Models and assays such as those described here will be important for designing mechanism-based approaches to the use of anti-angiogenesis therapies for the treatment of brain metastasis.”
“Objective: We describe the short-term results of the patients who underwent transapical treatment of a paravalvular leak (PVL) in our centre. Background: Increasing experience with transapical aortic valve implantation has inspired us to explore this approach for prosthetic paravalvular leak reduction in high risk patients.

Considering the therapeutic

transplantation of OECs, howe

Considering the therapeutic

transplantation of OECs, however, the basic question to date is not ‘how’ to translate but rather ‘what’ Selleckchem Belnacasan to translate into clinical practice. The aim of the present article is to provide a summary of the current literature and to define the open issues relevant for translating basic research on OECs into clinical practice. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Alterations in epigenetic marks, including methylation or acetylation, are common in human cancers. For many epigenetic pathways, however, direct measures of activity are unknown, making their role in various cancers difficult to assess. Gene expression signatures facilitate the examination of patterns of epigenetic pathway activation across and within human cancer types allowing Etomoxir better understanding of the relationships between these pathways.\n\nMethods: We used Bayesian regression to generate gene expression signatures from normal epithelial cells before and after epigenetic pathway activation. Signatures were applied to datasets from TCGA, GEO, CaArray, ArrayExpress, and the cancer cell line encyclopedia. For TCGA data, signature results were correlated with copy number variation and DNA methylation changes. GSEA

was used to identify biologic pathways related to the signatures.\n\nResults: We developed and validated signatures reflecting downstream effects of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), histone deacetylase( HDAC) 1, HDAC4, sirtuin 1(SIRT1), and DNA methyltransferase 2(DNMT2). By applying these

signatures to data from cancer cell lines and tumors in large public repositories, we identify those cancers that have the highest and lowest selleck inhibitor activation of each of these pathways. Highest EZH2 activation is seen in neuroblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, small cell lung cancer, and melanoma, while highest HDAC activity is seen in pharyngeal cancer, kidney cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Across all datasets studied, activation of both EZH2 and HDAC4 is significantly underrepresented. Using breast cancer and glioblastoma as examples to examine intrinsic subtypes of particular cancers, EZH2 activation was highest in luminal breast cancers and proneural glioblastomas, while HDAC4 activation was highest in basal breast cancer and mesenchymal glioblastoma. EZH2 and HDAC4 activation are associated with particular chromosome abnormalities: EZH2 activation with aberrations in genes from the TGF and phosphatidylinositol pathways and HDAC4 activation with aberrations in inflammatory and chemokine related genes.\n\nConclusion: Gene expression patterns can reveal the activation level of epigenetic pathways. Epigenetic pathways define biologically relevant subsets of human cancers. EZH2 activation and HDAC4 activation correlate with growth factor signaling and inflammation, respectively, and represent two distinct states for cancer cells.

The predominant SW aspect of the enigmatic dragonblood tree under

The predominant SW aspect of the enigmatic dragonblood tree underlines the importance of fog. Long-term weather observations by Socotri put these short-term meteorological observations into a longer perspective. Socotri informants also described the Selleckchem Prexasertib drought years when livestock populations crashed, after which windows of opportunities for the regeneration of dragonblood and other grazing-sensitive trees may have occurred. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In the current health care climate, economic and cultural conditions have created an

optimal opportunity to envision a new direction for nursing as a profession. Nurses find themselves at the formative stages of charting this new direction. The articulation of a professional practice model provides a framework for setting this new direction and thus the achievement of exemplary clinical outcomes. In this article, the authors describe the evolution of the professional

Tariquidar practice model at the Massachusetts General Hospital and how the model continues to be evaluated and modified over time by the nurses within the system.”
“Epilepsy remains a major medical problem for which there is no effective treatment. Oxidative damage plays an important role in epilepsy pathogenesis and may represent a target for treatment of epilepsy. Recent studies have suggested that nuclear factor learn more erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) binds to antioxidant response element (ARE) to induce antioxidant and phase II detoxification enzymes under conditions of oxidative stress, which reduces oxidative damage and accumulation of toxic metabolites. This study evaluated the role of Nrf2-ARE signal pathway in protecting the brain from seizure-mediated damage. Wistar rats and Nrf2-deficient or control mice were chronic kindled in the amygdala. Sulforaphane (SF) was used to activate Nrf2-ARE signal pathway. The progression of kindling, the cognitive impairment and oxidative stress parameters were assessed to determine the extent of seizure-mediated

brain damage. Our results indicate that activation Nrf2-ARE signal pathway with SF in hippocampus suppressed the progression of amygdala kindling, and also ameliorated the cognitive impairment and oxidative stress induced by epileptic seizure. These observations suggest that Nrf2-ARE signal pathway may represent a strategic target for epilepsy therapies. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Surrogate decision makers (SDMs) face difficult decisions at end of life (EOL) for decisionally incapacitated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Purpose: To identify and describe the underlying psychological processes of surrogate decision making for adults at EOL in the ICU. Methods: Qualitative case study design using a cognitive task analysis interviewing approach.

Through its Sustainable Immunization Financing Program, launched

Through its Sustainable Immunization Financing Program, launched in 2007, the Sabin Vaccine Institute is working

with fifteen African and Asian countries to establish stable internal funding for their immunization programs. The Sabin program advocates strengthening immunization programs through budget reforms, decentralization, and legislation. Six of the fifteen countries have 3-deazaneplanocin A inhibitor increased their national immunization budgets, and nine are preparing legislation to finance immunization sustainably. Lessons from this work with immunization programs may be applicable in other countries as well as to other health programs.”
“Ginsenoside Rb1 is generally recognized as one of the principal bioactive ingredients in ginseng and shows neuroprotective effects in various neurons. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is considered to play an important role in numerous neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, glucogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3 beta) was reported to regulate ER stress-induced C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in neuronal cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on GSK3 beta-mediated ER stress in high glucose-treated hippocampal neurons. Results from the MTT assay showed that treatment with 1 mu M Rb1 for 72 h protected neurons from high glucose-induced cell injury. Using western blot analysis, we found that treatment with Rb1 effectively inhibited

the phosphorylation of the high glucose-induced protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) and of GSK3 beta, and reduced the level of the CHOP protein. The levels of these proteins were also decreased by treatment Vorinostat cost with the GSK3 beta inhibitor Licl. Rb1 also significantly decreased the mRNA expression of the gene CHOP, as shown by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Taken together, the present results suggested that Rb1 may protect neurons from high glucose-induced cell damage by inhibiting GSK3 beta-mediated CHOP induction, providing a potentially new strategy for preventing and treating cognitive

impairment Bcl-2 protein caused by diabetes.”
“Subacute and subchronic toxicity of the herbicide Avalon (R), a mixture of bentazone and dicamba, were tested on rats. Avalon (R) was administered at dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 and 90 days. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were monitored together with biochemistry parameters. The results showed that the mixture caused increases in the activities of ALT, AST and ALP, elevated concentrations of sodium, albumin and albumin/globulin ratio in males. In females, ALT activity, cholesterol and phosphate levels were increased. The changes generally were dose related and, in most cases, females exhibited lower susceptibility than males. The effects of a mixture are, in the most cases, different from the effects of the individual substances.

016) and in the ventral olfactory bulb (two-fold increase, p <

016) and in the ventral olfactory bulb (two-fold increase, p < 0.036). In contrast, no significant TMT-induced c-fos induction could be observed in the dorsal olfactory bulb or in the amygdala. Our results display robust fear responses of CAD67-GFP knock-in mice exposed to TMT and suggest that the ventral MI-503 purchase olfactory bulb and the BNST are strongly activated

during the elicitation of fear through predator odor in these transgenic mice. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All right:; reserved.”
“The incidence of obesity and overweight has reached epidemic proportions in the developed world as well as in those countries transitioning to first world economies, and this represents a major global health problem. Concern is rising over the rapid increases in childhood obesity and metabolic disease that will translate into later adult obesity. Although an obesogenic nutritional environment and increasingly sedentary lifestyle contribute to our risk of developing obesity, a growing body of evidence links early

life nutritional adversity to the development of long-term metabolic disorders. In particular, the increasing prevalence of maternal obesity and excess maternal weight gain has been associated with a heightened risk of obesity development in offspring in addition to an increased risk of pregnancy-related complications. The mechanisms that link maternal obesity to obesity in selleck kinase inhibitor offspring and the level of gene-environment interactions are not well understood, but the early life environment may represent a critical window for which intervention strategies could be developed to curb the current obesity epidemic. This paper will discuss the various animal models of maternal overnutrition and their importance in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying altered obesity risk in offspring.”
“Microbial biotransformation of acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid by Cunninghamella elegans AS 3.1207 was carried out, and HKI-272 manufacturer totally four transformed products were isolated. On the basis of the extensive spectral data, their structures were characterized as 7-hydroxy-11-keto-boswellic acid (1), 7,30-dihydroxy-11-keto-boswellic

acid (2), 7,16-dihydroxy-3-acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid (3), and 7,15,21-trihydroxy-3-acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid (4), respectively. Among them, products 1 and 2 are the new compounds.”
“Background In our previous systematic review of economic evaluations of pandemic influenza interventions, five model parameters, namely probability of pandemic, duration of pandemic, severity, attack rate, and intervention efficacy, were not only consistently used in all studies but also considered important by authors.\n\nObjectives Because these parameters originated from sources of varying quality ranging from experimental studies to expert opinion, this study aims to analyze the variation in values used according to sources of information across studies.

Design The antiviral activity of curcumin and its derivatives was

Design The antiviral activity of curcumin and its derivatives was evaluated using HCV pseudo-particles (HCVpp) and cell-culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) in hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes. The mechanism of action was dissected using R18-labelled virions and a membrane fluidity assay.

Results Curcumin treatment had no effect on HCV RNA replication or viral assembly/release. However, co-incubation of HCV with curcumin potently inhibited entry of all major HCV genotypes. Similar antiviral activities were also exerted by other curcumin derivatives but not by tetrahydrocurcumin, BYL719 nmr suggesting the importance of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone groups for the antiviral activity. Expression levels of known HCV receptors were unaltered, BIBF 1120 supplier while pretreating the virus with the compound reduced viral infectivity without viral lysis.

Membrane fluidity experiments indicated that curcumin affected the fluidity of the HCV envelope resulting in impairment of viral binding and fusion. Curcumin has also been found to inhibit cell-to-cell transmission and to be effective in combination with other antiviral agents. Conclusions Turmeric curcumin inhibits HCV entry independently of the genotype and in primary human hepatocytes by affecting membrane fluidity thereby impairing virus binding and fusion.”
“Within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) mediate phasic inhibition of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and influence behavioral responses to cocaine. Wedemonstrate that both dopamine D1- and D2- receptor- selleck chemicals llc expressing MSNs (D- MSNs) additionally harbor extrasynaptic GABA(A)Rs incorporating alpha 4, beta, and delta subunits that mediate tonic inhibition, thereby influencing neuronal excitability. Boththe selective delta-GABA(A) RagonistTHIPandDS2, aselective positive allostericmodulator, greatlyincreasedthe toniccurrentof allMSNsfrom wild- type (WT), but not from delta(-/-) or alpha 4(-/-) mice. Coupling dopamine and tonic inhibition, the acute activation of D1 receptors (by a selective agonist or indirectly by amphetamine) greatly enhanced tonic inhibition in D1- MSNs but not D2- MSNs. In contrast, prolonged D2 receptor activationmodestlyreducedthe

tonicconductanceof D2-MSNs. Behaviorally, WTandconstitutive alpha 4(-/)-micedidnotdiffer in their expression of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). Importantly, however, mice with the alpha 4 deletion specific to D1-expressing neurons (alpha 4(D1-/-)) showed increased CPP. Furthermore, THIP administered systemically or directly into theNAcofWT, but not alpha 4(-/)-or alpha 4D1(-/)-mice, blocked cocaine enhancement of CPP. In comparison, alpha 4(D2-/)-mice exhibited normal CPP, but no cocaine enhancement. In conclusion, dopamine modulation of GABAergic tonic inhibition of D1- and D2-MSNs provides an intrinsic mechanism to differentially affect their excitability in response to psychostimulants and thereby influence their ability to potentiate conditioned reward.

We report here the development of genus-specific primers that can

We report here the development of genus-specific primers that can detect all the major Zygosaccharomyces species including all those associated with foods; the rare and localised species Z. machadoi and Z. gambellarensis are not detected. The size of the single amplicon produced varies between species and in some cases is sufficiently different to assign provisional species identification. Sequence data from rDNA regions are available for virtually all described yeast species in all genera, thus, prior to having sufficient sequence data from structural genes, rDNA regions may provide more generally suitable candidates for both genus-specific and species-specific primer design. (C) 2013 Elsevier

B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In myelodysplastic syndromes with ring sideroblasts (MDS-RS), the iron deposited in the mitochondria of RS is present in the form of mitochondrial ferritin CCI-779 concentration (FTMT), Selleckchem Fludarabine but it is unknown whether FTMT overexpression is the cause or the result of mitochondrial iron deposition. Lentivirus FTMT-transduced CD34+ bone marrow cells from seven healthy donors and CD34+ cells from 24 patients with MDS-RS were cultured according to

a procedure that allowed the expansion of high numbers of erythroid progenitors. These cells were used to investigate the possible influence of experimentally-induced FTMT overexpression on normal erythropoiesis and the functional effects of FTMT in sideroblastic erythropoiesis. In MDS-RS progenitors, FTMT overexpression was associated with reduced cytosolic ferritin levels, increased surface transferrin receptor expression and reduced cell proliferation; FTMT effects were independent of SF3B1 mutation status. Similarly, FTMT https://www.selleckchem.com/products/shp099-dihydrochloride.html overexpressing normal erythroid progenitors were characterized by reduced cytosolic ferritin content and increased CD71 expression, and also by higher apoptotic rate in comparison with the FTMT- controls.

Significantly lower levels of STAT5 phosphorylation following erythropoietin stimulation were found in both sideroblastic and normal FTMT+ erythroid cells compared to the FTMT- cells. In conclusion, experimental overexpression of FTMT may modify mitochondrial iron availability and lead to ineffective erythropoiesis.”
“Carbon isotopic fractionation was investigated in fatty acids (FA) of adipose tissue and blood serum of threatened Steller’s eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) relative to the FA in their diets. Captive eiders were fed a known diet for 180 days with serum sampled at 60, 120 and 180 days immediately after a 12 h fast; adipose was collected at 180 days. Essential FA (EFA) in the adipose showed varying degrees of isotope fractionation (0-4%), depending on FA structure. The delta(13)C values of long-chain FA 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 did not differ from those in the diet, while those of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 were similar to 2% greater than in the diet.

(c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci , 127: 1659-

(c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 127: 1659-1666, 2013″
“Increasing life expectancy and increasing cancer incidence with aging will result in expansion of the elderly cancer population. Cancer epidemiology trials of patients aged 70 years or older are very rare in the literature and only subgroup analysis are presented. The objective of our study was to evaluate the cancer distribution,

rates and trends in geriatric population. 90,472 patients with cancer diagnosis, Z-VAD-FMK who were admitted to our hospital between January 2005 and December 2009, were identified through a search in the hospital-based computer database, retrospectively. 9682 (10.7%) patients aged 70 years or older were analyzed for social-demographic characteristics, cancer distribution, rates and trends. 4,954 male (51.2%) and 4,728 female (48.8%) patients, age ranged from 70 to 96 years, with a median age of 75 years were analyzed. Ten leading cancer types were breast (15.8%), prostate (9.9%), colorectal (9.6%),

lung (9.4%), skin (6.7%), gastric (6.6%), bladder (6.3%), nonhodgkin lymphoma (4.7%), over (2.8%) and endometrium (2.7%) in elderly. The number of new cancer cases significantly increased by years, for both men and women (p< 0.001). Cancers of gastrointestinal tract, lung, breast, head-neck and skin showed significant increasing trends (p< 0.001); whereas brain, gynecologic and urinary tract cancers had stable trends in both sexes (p>0.05). HSP990 order In conclusion, a comprehensive cancer statistic Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library concentration in geriatric population will be decisive in

determining the health policies. Breast, cervical, colorectal and prostate cancers are the types of cancer for which early screening has been shown to reduce mortality. Cancer screening should be attentively applied in elderly patients.”
“PURPOSE: This research applies a life course health development framework to examine the impacts of childhood exposure to air pollution on respiratory health in adulthood.\n\nMETHODS: This prospective cohort study uses data collected from children originally studied in the 1970/1980s, including exposure to air pollution, indoor exposures, sociodemographic variables, and health outcomes data. Thirty years later, a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from adulthood on health status, occupational and residential histories, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle.\n\nRESULTS: Overall, 29% of respondents were diagnosed with at least one respiratory condition and 24% have persistent respiratory symptoms in adulthood. Significant neighborhood differences in exposure variables and adulthood health outcomes were found.