7 +/- 4 9 ng/ml) compared to the HC group (15 1 +/- 5 5 ng/ml, p=

7 +/- 4.9 ng/ml) compared to the HC group (15.1 +/- 5.5 ng/ml, p=0.04) and also compared

to the ANRec group (17.6 +/- 4.8 ng/ml, p=0.001). The AN group made significantly more errors (total and perseverative) in the WCST relative to the HC group. There was no significant correlation between serum BDNF concentrations and performance on the WCST.\n\nConclusions. Serum BDNF may be a biological marker for eating-related psychopathology and of recovery in AN. Longitudinal studies are needed to explore possible associations between serum BDNF concentrations, illness and recovery and neuropsychological traits.”
“We discuss potential caveats when estimating topologies of 3D brain networks from surface recordings. It is virtually Kinase Inhibitor Library impossible to record activity from all single neurons in the brain and one has to rely on techniques that measure average activity at sparsely

located (non-invasive) recording sites Effects of this spatial sampling in relation to structural network measures like centrality and assortativity were analyzed using multivariate classifiers find more A simplified model of 3D brain connectivity incorporating both short- and long-range connections served for testing. To mimic M/EEG recordings we sampled this model via non-overlapping regions and weighted nodes and connections according to their proximity to the recording sites We used various complex network models for reference and tried to classify sampled versions of the “brain-like” AZD8055 datasheet network as one of these archetypes It was found that sampled networks may substantially deviate in topology from the respective original networks for small sample sizes For experimental studies this may imply that surface recordings can yield network structures that might not agree with its generating 3D network. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved”
“Objective\n\nThis paper presents the final analysis

of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) vs. lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected adults.\n\nMethods\n\nSubjects; NCT00258557) was a randomized, open-label, phase-III, 192-week trial. Patients were stratified by baseline HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count, and randomized to once-daily DRV/r 800/100?mg or LPV/r 800/200?mg total daily dose (either once or twice daily) plus tenofovir/emtricitabine.\n\nResults\n\nOf 689 randomized patients receiving treatment (DRV/r: 343; LPV/r: 346), 85 and 114 patients in the DRV/r and LPV/r arms, respectively, had discontinued by week 192. Noninferiority was shown in the primary endpoint of virological response (HIV-1 RNA?<?50 copies/mL) [DRV/r: 68.8%; LPV/r: 57.2%; P?<?0.001; intent to treat (ITT)/time to loss of virological response; estimated difference in response 11.6% (95% confidence interval 4.418.8%)]. Statistical superiority in virological response of DRV/r over LPV/r was demonstrated for the primary endpoint (P?=?0.002) and for the ITT non-virological-failure-censored analysis (87.4% vs. 80.8%, respectively; P?=?0.040).

“Objectives: Regulatory

“Objectives: Regulatory Ferroptosis inhibitor T cells (T(R) cells) play a crucial role in the regulation of intestinal inflammation. To examine the pathogenetic relevance of T(R) cells in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we evaluated their frequency in peripheral blood and inflamed and noninflamed mucosae of pediatric patients with IBD and age-matched controls without IBD; we also characterized the immune profile of the inflammatory infiltrate in the different phases of the disease.\n\nPatients and Methods: Circulating T(R) cells were investigated on peripheral blood mononuclear cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis; mucosal T(R) cells and

inflammatory cell populations were investigated by immunohistochemistry on bioptic specimens. FOXP3 messenger RNA expression levels were confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction.\n\nResults: FOXP3+ T(R) cells were significantly increased in the intestinal lesions of patients with active IBD, and returned to normal levels in

posttherapy remission phase. At variance, circulating T(R) cell frequency was elevated in patients with IBD independently of disease activity, as it persisted in the remission phase. A selective imbalance in the frequency of CD4+ T and natural killer cell subsets characterized the abundant inflammatory infiltrate of active intestinal lesions, and also persisted, at a lower level, in noninflamed mucosae ALK inhibitor of patients in the remission phase.\n\nConclusions: T(R) cell frequency is differently regulated in mucosal tissues and at the systemic level during the distinct phases of pediatric IBD. The inactive stage of pediatric IBD is characterized by an incomplete normalization of the immune profile, independently of the clinical LY2090314 efficacy of the therapy. The pediatric, early-onset condition

may represent a privileged observatory to dissect the immune-mediated pathogenetic mechanisms at the basis of the disease.”
“A novel skeletal rearrangement of bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-2,4,9-trione (16) to an unprecedented highly functionalized bicyclo[3.3.0]octane system (17), induced by an intramolecular Michael addition, is presented. This novel framework was found to be similarly active to hyperforin (1), against PC-3 cell lines. A mechanistic study was examined in detail, proposing a number of cascade transformations. Also, reactivity of the Delta(7,10)-double bond was examined under several conditions to explain the above results.”
“Objective: To prospectively analyze duplex sonography, CTA, and MRA with respect to stenosis grading of the celiac trunk (TC) and the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), with DSA as the reference.\n\nMaterials and Methods: 52 subjects were enrolled (mean age: 71).

The spines of 30 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosi

\n\nThe spines of 30 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were reconstructed using biplanar stereoradiography with and without the brace. The Cobb angle, sagittal and pelvic parameters and transverse plane parameters were calculated. The variability and the mean values of each parameter, Z-DEVD-FMK datasheet with and without a brace, were analyzed and compared using a student t test.\n\nThe Cobb angle improved in 50 % of patients

but remained unchanged in 50 % cases. In 90 % of the cases lordosis was decreased. The thoracic kyphosis was decreased in 26 % cases, unchanged in 57 % of cases and increased in 17 % cases. The AVR was improved (> 5A degrees) in 26 % cases, worsened in 23 % and unchanged in 50 %. Only the differences of Cobb angle and the lordosis were statistically significant.\n\nGlobal statistics of this study concur with the literature. The Cobb angle was significantly improved. It also showed a significant hypolordotic effect. However, the results showed a high

variability of the brace treatment effect in almost every parameter. Analysis of this variability by means of 3D reconstructions instead of global statistics should help characterize the mechanisms of correction of brace treatment.”
“Landscape-scale fire behavior analyses are important to inform decisions on resource management projects that meet land management objectives and protect values from adverse consequences Smoothened Agonist purchase of fire. Deterministic and probabilistic geospatial fire behavior analyses are conducted with various modeling systems including FARSITE, FlamMap, FSPro, and Large Fire Simulation System. The fundamental fire intensity algorithms in these systems require surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy cover to model surface fire behavior. Canopy base height, stand height, and canopy bulk density are required in addition to surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy cover to model crown fire activity. Several

surface fuel and canopy classification efforts have used various remote sensing and ecological relationships as core methods to develop A-1155463 mw the spatial layers. All of these methods depend upon consistent and temporally constant interpretations of crown attributes and their ecological conditions to estimate surface fuel conditions.\n\nThis study evaluates modeled fire behavior for an 80,000 ha tract of land in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern US using three different data sources. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) was used to build fuelbeds from intensive field sampling of 629 plots. Custom fire behavior fuel models were derived from these fuelbeds. LANDFIRE developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy attributes for the US using satellite imagery informed by field data. The Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment (SWRA) developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy cover for the southeastern US using satellite imagery.

Unique recognition of test phantom configurations was achieved in

Unique recognition of test phantom configurations was achieved in the large majority of cases. The method in the general case was further tested using an exhaustive set of inhomogeneity and phantom tissues

and geometries where the phantom thicknesses ranged between 8 and 24 cm. Unique recognition of the test phantom configurations was achieved only for part of the phantom parameter space. The correlations between the remaining false positive recognitions were analyzed.\n\nConclusions: The concept of 3D proton radiography for tissue inhomogeneities of simple geometries was established with the current work. In contrast to conventional 2D proton radiography, the main objective of the demonstrated 3D technique is not proton range. Rather, it is to measure the depth and thickness of an inhomogeneity located in an imaged geometry. Further work is needed Nepicastat mw to extend and apply the method to more complex geometries. (C) 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.”
“A recent analysis of leukaemia mortality in Japanese A-bomb survivors has applied descriptive models, collected together from previous studies, to derive

a joint excess relative risk estimate (ERR) by multi-model inference (MMI) (Walsh and Kaiser Selleck GDC 0068 in Radiat Environ Biophys 50:21-35, 2011). The models use a linear-quadratic dose response with differing dose effect modifiers. In the present selleck study, a set of more than 40 models has been submitted to a rigorous statistical selection procedure which fosters the parsimonious deployment of model parameters based on pairwise likelihood ratio tests. Nested models were

consequently excluded from risk assessment. The set comprises models of the excess absolute risk (EAR) and two types of non-standard ERR models with sigmoidal responses or two line spline functions with a changing slope at a break point. Due to clearly higher values of the Akaike Information Criterion, none of the EAR models has been selected, but two non-standard ERR models qualified for MMI. The preferred ERR model applies a purely quadratic dose response which is slightly damped by an exponential factor at high doses and modified by a power function for attained age. Compared to the previous analysis, the present study reports similar point estimates and confidence intervals (CI) of the ERR from MMI for doses between 0.5 and 2.5 Sv. However, at lower doses, the point estimates are markedly reduced by factors between two and five, although the reduction was not statistically significant. The 2.5 % percentiles of the ERR from the preferred quadratic-exponential model did not fall below zero risk in exposure scenarios for children, adolescents and adults at very low doses down to 10 mSv. Yet, MMI produced risk estimates with a positive 2.5 % percentile only above doses of some 300 mSv.

We found that, overall, hermaphrodites from populations with male

We found that, overall, hermaphrodites from populations with males tended to be more female than those from populations lacking males. Importantly, hermaphrodites’ investment in pollen

and BI 6727 supplier seed production was more plastic when they came from populations with males than without them, reducing their pollen production at low resource availability and increasing their seed production at high resource availability. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that plasticity in sex allocation is enhanced in hermaphrodites that have likely been exposed to variation in mating opportunities due to fluctuations in the frequency of co-occurring males.”
“A simple, rapid, and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the quantitative determination of simvastatin in human plasma was developed and validated. After a simple extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether, the analyte and internal standard (lovastatin) were analyzed using reverse-phase

liquid chromatography, on a Kinetex C-18 column (100 x 4.6 mm, 2.6 DAPT ic50 mu m) using acetonitrile: ammonium acetate (2 mM + 0.025 % formic acid) (70: 30, v/v) as a mobile phase in a run time of 3.5 min. Detection was carried out using electrospray positive ionization mass spectrometry in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The method was linear over 0.04-40.0 ng/mL concentration SN-38 manufacturer range. The mean extraction recovery of simvastatin was 82% (RSD within 15%). Intraday and interday precisions (as relative standard deviation) were all smaller than = 8,7% with accuracy (as relative error) of +/- 8%. This rapid and reliable method was successfully applied for a bioequivalence study of 40 mg of simvastatin orally disintegrating tablets in 44 healthy volunteers, showing that this method is suitable for the quantification of simvastatin in human plasma samples for pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence studies.”
“Context. – The cortico-basal syndrome (CBS), a complex clinical neurodegenerative disorder,

may have multiple aetiologies including corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The aim of this study was to explore the brain perfusion profile in CBS patients according to the biological profile of CFS biomarkers (BM). Materials and methods. – Fifteen patients fulfilling clinical criteria of CBS underwent a brain perfusion scintigraphy with Tc-99m-ECD and a lumbar punction to determine the biochemical profile of CSF biomarkers (BM). Several groups were compared with SPM8 software: 1) 5 patients with SCB and with an AD CSF profile (CBS-AD); 2) 10 patients with CBS and not having an AD CSF profile (SCB-nonAD); 3) 24 healthy controls (Wit-N); 4) 24 typical amnestic (AD). Results.

“Objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) i

“Objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic inflammatory selleck products disease involving oxidative stress as well as a wide variety of cells activated from smoking cigarettes. There have been disappointingly few therapeutic advances in drug therapy for COPD. Plant polyphenols have been the topic of much research regarding their antioxidant activities and antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In the present study, we ask whether

apple polyphenol provides protection against cigarette smoke (CS)-induced acute lung injury.\n\nMethods: ICR mice were exposed to CS for 4 d with increasing exposure time for up to 6 h per day to elicit epithelial cells injury. One hour before smoke exposure, mice were treated

with apple polyphenol (APP) by gavage; all examinations were performed 18 h after the last CS exposure.\n\nResults: APP at 30, 100, or 300 mg not only significantly dose-dependently reduced the CS-induced accumulation of inflammatory cells and gene/protein expression of proinflammatory factors both in the lung and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but also significantly reversed oxidative stress in the lungs. Additionally, treatment with APP also significantly SBC-115076 solubility dmso regulated the CS-induced imbalance of matrix metalloproteinases-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 expression in the lungs. To investigate further the possible signaling pathway of APP effects, we examined protein expression of p-P38 MAPK by immunohistochemistry that found treatment with APP significantly decreased the CS-induced increases of p-P38 expression in the lungs.\n\nConclusion:

Taken together, APP may be a potential dietary nutrient supplement agent to improve quality of life of COPD patients by inhibiting CS-exposed acute lung injury via P38 MAPK signaling pathway. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Previous work has found yield-maximizing nitrogen (N) rates in switchgrass production and results have varied widely. Little attention, however, has been given to estimating profit-maximizing N rates. VX-680 chemical structure The objectives of this research were to determine the (1) yield- and (2) profit-maximizing N rates for producing switchgrass on four soil types/landscapes in Tennessee. Mixed models were used to perform an analysis of variance on the effects of four N rates on average yield and average net returns for switchgrass grown on the four soil types/landscapes. Data were analyzed from a switchgrass experiment conducted at Milan, Tennessee over a six-year period on: (1) a moderately- to well-drained level upland (WDLU), (2) a moderately- to well-drained flood plain (WDFP), (3) a moderate-to somewhat poorly-drained eroded sloping upland (MDSU), and (4) a poorly-drained flood plain (PDFP). The N rates that maximized average yield were 67, 134, 134, and 200 kg N ha(-1) for the WDFP, WDLU, MDSU, and PDFP soil types/landscapes, respectively.

In addition, the

results show that if one is interested o

In addition, the

results show that if one is interested only in predicting IndeIFRs in protein sequences, it would be preferable to use the proposed predictors instead of HMMER 3.0 in view of the substantially superior performance of the former.”
“Objectives: The most important goal of a health information system (HIS) is improvement of quality, effectiveness and efficiency of health services. To achieve this goal, health care systems should be evaluated continuously. The aim of this paper was to study the impacts of HISs in Iran and the methods used for their evaluation. Methods: We systematically searched all English and Persian papers evaluating health information systems in Iran that were indexed in SID, CCI-779 in vitro P505-15 datasheet Magiran, Iran medex, PubMed and Embase databases until June 2013. A data collection form was designed to extract required data such as types of systems evaluated, evaluation methods and tools. Results: In this study, 53 out of 1103 retrieved articles were selected as relevant and

reviewed by the authors. This study indicated that 28 studies used questionnaires to evaluate the system and in 27 studies the study instruments were distributed within a research population. In 26 papers the researchers collected the information by means of interviews, observations, heuristic evaluation and the review of documents and records. The main effects of the evaluated systems in health care settings were improving quality of services, reducing time, increasing accessibility to information, reducing costs and decreasing medical errors. Conclusion: Evaluation

of health information check details systems is central to their development and enhancement, and to understanding their effect on health and health services. Despite numerous evaluation methods available, the reviewed studies used a limited number of methods to evaluate HIS. Additionally, the studies mainly discussed the positive effects of HIS on health care services. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that modulates a wide variety of cellular functions. Elevated LPA signaling has been reported in patients with colorectal cancer or inflammatory bowel diseases, and the tumorigenic role of LPA has been demonstrated in experimental models of colon cancer. However, emerging evidence indicates the importance of LPA signaling in epithelial wound healing and regulation of intestinal electrolyte transport. Here, we briefly review current knowledge of the biological roles of LPA signaling in the intestinal tract. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Composite photoanode comprising nanoparticles and one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure is a promising alternative to conventional photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Besides fast electron transport channels, the 1D nanostructure also plays as light scattering centers.

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd “
“Context: Major

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Context: Major surgery induces a catabolic state resulting in a net loss of body protein.\n\nObjectives: Our objective was to compare protein metabolism before and after surgery in nondiabetic selleck products patients with and without preoperative insulin resistance

(IR). It was hypothesized that the anabolic response to feeding would be significantly impaired in those patients with preoperative insulin resistance.\n\nDesign: A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp has been used to identify two groups of patients: IR and insulin sensitive (IS). A tracer kinetics technique has been used to evaluate the metabolic response to food intake in both groups.\n\nSetting: Patients undergoing cardiopulmonary this website bypass participated.\n\nPatients or Other Participants: Ten IS patients and 10 IR patients were enrolled in the study.\n\nIntervention: After an overnight fasting, a 3-h infusion of a solution composed of 20% glucose and of amino acids at

a rate of 0.67 and 0.44 kcal/kg . h, respectively, was started in each group. Phenylalanine kinetics were studied at the end of fasting and feeding.\n\nMain Outcome Measure: Effect of feeding on protein balance before and after surgery was evaluated. Protein balance has been measured as the net difference of protein breakdown minus protein synthesis.\n\nResults: Protein balance increase after postoperative feeding was blunted only in the IR group. In contrast, in the IS group, the postoperative anabolic effect of feeding Vorinostat purchase was the same as before surgery.\n\nConclusions: These findings propose a link between insulin resistance and protein metabolism. When non-IR patients are fed, a significant anabolic effect in the postoperative period is demonstrated. In contrast, IR patients are less able to use feeding for synthetic purposes. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96: E1789-E1797, 2011)”
“Background: Tumors of the head and neck present aggressive pathological behavior

in patients due to high expression of CDK/CCND1 proteins. P276-00, a novel CDK inhibitor currently being tested in clinic, inhibits growth of several cancers in vitro and in vivo. The pre clinical activity of P276-00 in head and neck cancer and its potential mechanisms of action at molecular level are the focus of the current studies.\n\nMethod: We have investigated the anti-cancer activity of P276-00 in head and neck tumors in vitro and in vivo. Candidate gene expression profiling and cell based proteomic approaches were taken to understand the pathways affected by P276-00 treatment.\n\nResults: It was observed that P276-00 is cytotoxic across various HNSCC cell lines with an IC50 ranging from 1.0-1.5 mu moles/L and culminated in significant cell-cycle arrest in G1/S phase followed by apoptosis.

These data suggest the preterm heart lacks the functional capacit

These data suggest the preterm heart lacks the functional capacity buy CA4P to acutely adapt to postnatal afterload. To maximize systemic blood flow in preterm infants, treatments limiting afterload, while harnessing significant preload reserve, should be further explored.”
“In liver mitochondria fatty acids act as protonophoric uncouplers mainly with participation of internal membrane protein carriers – ADP/ATP and aspartate/glutamate antiporters. In this study the values of recoupling effects of carboxyatractylate and glutamate (or aspartate) were used to assess the degree of participation of ADP/ATP and aspartate/glutamate

antiporters in uncoupling activity of fatty acids. These values were determined from the ability of these recoupling agents to suppress the respiration stimulated by fatty acids and to raise the membrane potential reduced by fatty acids. Increase in palmitic and lauric acid concentration was shown to increase the degree of participation of ADP/ATP antiporter and to decrease the degree of participation of aspartate/glutamate antiporter in uncoupling to the same extent. These data suggest that fatty acids are not only inducers of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, but that they also act the regulators of this process. The linear dependence of carboxyatractylate HCS assay and glutamate recoupling effects ratio on palmitic and lauric

acids concentration was established. Comparison of the effects of fatty acids (palmitic, myristic, lauric, capric, and caprylic having 16, 14, 12, 10, and 8 carbon atoms, selleck kinase inhibitor respectively) has shown that, as the hydrophobicity of fatty acids decreases, the effectiveness decreases to a greater degree than the respective values of their specific uncoupling activity. The action of fatty acids as regulators of uncoupling

is supposed to consist of activation of transport of their anions from the internal to the external monolayer of the internal membrane with participation of ADP/ATP antiporter and, at the same time, in inhibition of this process with the participation of aspartate/glutamate antiporter.”
“The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the odor-active compounds of the essential oils from Evolvulus alsinoides, which is a well-known edible and medicinal plant. The volatile compounds in the oils were identified by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) in combination with GC, GC/MS, GC/O (=olfactometry), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and relative flavor activities (RFA values). The most abundant compound in the HD oil was cis-alpha-necrodol (12.62%), an irregular monoterpene with a cyclopentane skeleton, which is very unusual in the plant kingdom. In the SAFE oil, the main components included 2-butoxyethanol (9.01%), benzyl alcohol (8.01%), and gamma-butyrolactone (7.37%). Through sensory analysis, 21 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC/O.

Contacts within the clytin-cgGFP complex and electrostatic comple

Contacts within the clytin-cgGFP complex and electrostatic complementarity of interaction surfaces argued for a weak protein-protein complex. A weak affinity was also observed by isothermal titration calorimetry (K-D = 0.9 mM). Mutation of clytin residues located at the interaction site reduced the degree of protein-protein association concomitant with a loss of effectiveness of cgGFP in color-shifting the bioluminescence. It is suggested that this clytin-cgGFP structure

corresponds to the transient complex previously postulated to account for the energy transfer effect of GFP in the bioluminescence of aequorin or Renilla luciferase.”
“Objective: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified pediatric low-grade neoplasm

that was previously classified as pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), yet demonstrates learn more unique histological features and more aggressive behavior. These tumors have been shown to have significantly shorter progression-free and overall survival probability than classical low-grade astrocytomas, as well as a high rate of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination. This paper describes the radiographic features of PMA.\n\nMethods: PX-478 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained for ten PMAs. Radiographic characteristics of the tumor were recorded in each case. All tissue samples were independently reviewed for confirmation of pathologic diagnosis.\n\nResults: All tumors appeared well-circumscribed with no evidence of peritumoral edema or parenchymal infiltration on MRI. All tumors except one originated from the midline of the neuroaxis. Specifically, five tumors (50.0%) were located in the hypothalamic region, two (20.0%) were located in the spine, two (20.0%) were located in the dorsal brainstem and one was located in the right thalamus. Five tumors (50.0%) demonstrated solid composition, with the remaining five showing some cystic components. Mass effect, hydrocephalus and central necrosis were observed in 62.5, 50.0 and 0.0% of cases, respectively. Eight tumors (80%) were

hyperintense on T1-weighted MRI. Seven tumors (77.8%) were hyperintense on T2-weighted MRI. All tumors were hyperintense on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence and hypointense on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Upon contrast selleck screening library administration, six tumors (60.0%) enhanced heterogeneously and four tumors (40.0%) enhanced homogenously.\n\nConclusion: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a well-circumscribed pediatric neoplasm that commonly originates from the midline of the neuroaxis and lacks peritumoral edema or central necrosis. It is critical to recognize the predominantly solid and well-circumscribed nature of the neoplasm to avoid confusion with an infiltrating astrocytoma. [Neurol Res 2008; 30: 945-951]“
“Optimal management of the mandible fracture is directly dependent on thorough evaluation, correct injury assessment, and timely initiation of appropriate therapy.