, 2001). Previous research has indicated that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics may interfere with the translation of one or more regulatory gene products in S. aureus and may thereby affect transcription of the exoprotein-encoding genes. For example, subinhibitory concentrations
of clindamycin differentially inhibit the transcription of exoprotein genes in S. aureus and act partly through sar (Herbert et al., 2001). Additionally, subinhibitory concentrations of β-lactams induce haemolytic activity in S. aureus through the SaeRS two-component system (Kuroda et al., 2007). In the study, real-time RT-PCR was performed Ruxolitinib to investigate the influence of licochalcone A on the agr locus of S. aureus. Our results showed that licochalcone A significantly inhibited agrA
transcription. However, the mechanisms by which S. aureus controls virulence gene expression are fairly intricate and involve an interactive, hierarchical regulatory cascade among the products of the sar, agr, and other components (Chan & Foster, 1998). Accordingly, MAPK inhibitor we may infer that the reduction of SEA and SEB in S. aureus in the presence of licochalcone A may, in part, originate from the inhibition of the Agr two-component system. In conclusion, considering the potent antimicrobial activities of licochalcone A on S. aureus, the influence of licochalcone A on α-toxin secretion, as well as the findings in the present study that licochalcone A significantly reduces the production of key pathogenicity factors by S. aureus, namely the enterotoxins A and B, licochalcone A may potentially be used in the food or the pharmaceutical industries. The study was supported by a grant from the 973 programme of China (2006CB504402). “
“In recent years, the Chinese tree shrew
has been considered to be a promising experimental animal for numerous diseases. Yet the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in Chinese tree shrew is still unknown. We infected Chinese tree shrews with a high dose (2.5 × 106 CFU) or a low dose (2.5 × 103 CFU) of the H37Rv strain via the femoral vein to cause severe or mild disease. Disease severity was determined by clinical Methane monooxygenase signs, pathologic changes and bacteria distribution in organs. Furthermore, among lung samples of the uninfected, mildly and seriously ill Chinese tree shrews, differentially expressed protein profiles were analyzed through iTRAQ and validated by qPCR. Tuberculous nodules, skin ulceration, pleural effusion and cerebellum necrosis could be observed in seriously ill animals. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton was newly defined as a possible MTB-related pathway correlated with disease progression. This comprehensive analysis of the experimental infection and the depiction of the proteomics profiles in the Chinese tree shrew provide a foundation for the establishment of a new animal model of tuberculosis and provide a better understanding of the mechanism of tuberculosis.