Conflict of Interest: None declared
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a damage to the spinal cord that results in the loss of mobility and sensation below the level of injury. The disorder is characterized according to the more info amount of functional loss,
sensational loss, and inability to stand and walk.1-3 The incidence of SCI varies amongst countries. For example there are 12.7 and 59 new cases per million in France and the United States of America, respectively.4,5 It may be the result of trauma, especially #selleck kinase inhibitor keyword# motor vehicle accident, penetrating injuries, or diseases. As a result of this type of disability, most individuals with SCI rely on a wheelchair for their mobility. They can transport themselves from one place to another using a manual wheelchair with a speed and energy expenditure similar to normal subjects.6,7 Although, the use wheelchair provides mobility to such patients, it is not without problems. The main problems
are the restriction to mobility from architectural features Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the landscape, and a number of health issues due to prolonged sitting. Decubitus ulcers, osteoporosis, joint deformities, especially hip joint adduction contracture, can result from prolonged wheelchair use.8 Individuals with SCI often undergo various rehabilitation programmes Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for walking and exercises. It has been suggested that by decreasing urinary tract infections, improving cardiovascular and digestive systems functions and psychological health walking Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is a good exercise for paraplegics in order to maintain good health.8 In contrast, most patients prefer not to use an orthosis, or use it occasionally. They have mentioned some problem associated with use of orthoses. The main problem with orthosis use is the high energy demands it places on the users during ambulation. In Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical contrast to mobility speed with a wheelchair, the mobility speed of a SCI patient with an orthosis
is significantly less than that of normal walking.9-13 Donning and doffing of the orthosis is another important problem associated with the use of an orthosis.14 The high amount of the force applied on the upper limb musculature is another issue, which affects the use of an orthosis. AV-951 Depending on the style of walking, between 30% and 55% of body weight is applied on the crutch during walking.15-17 The high extent of the force, which is transmitted to the upper limb joints, increases the incidence of some diseases as well as shoulder pain.18,19 Fear to fall, especially during hand function performances, is another problem of using an orthosis. Although standing with an orthosis may have some benefits for the patients, it has a number of problems. Therefore, the main question that remains is wether or not walking and standing with an orthosis can fulfil the afore-mentioned benefits. Unfortunately, the information mentioned in some textbooks regarding the benefits of using an orthosis for SCI individuals are based on the survey studies.