Therefore, a strong stimulation by the psychoactive component of marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocanabinol (THC), might lead to subtle but lasting neurobiological changes that can affect adult brain functions and behaviour.\n\nThe literature here summarized by use of
experimental animal models, puts forward that heavy cannabis consumption in adolescence may induce subtle changes in the adult brain circuits ending in altered emotional and cognitive performance, enhanced vulnerability for the use of more harmful drugs of abuse in selected individuals, and may represent a risk factor for developing schizophrenia in adulthood.\n\nTherefore, the potential problems arising in relation to marijuana consumption in adolescence suggest that selleck inhibitor this developmental phase is a vulnerable period for persistent adverse effects of cannabinoids. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All selleck screening library rights reserved.”
“We studied the clinical benefits of radiological imaging, in the follow-up of patients after combined modality treatment for stage I/II classical supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Imaging data were collected for 78 adults treated during 1996-2008. Median follow-up was 4.6 years. Six of the nine relapses were detected clinically. On average, 31 imaging studies/patient were performed, with an estimated cost of $12 608/patient. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans accounted
for 25%, abdominopelvic CT scans 41% and positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/CT scans 22% of this expense. Only one patient recurred infradiaphragmatically. The estimated radiation dose from imaging was 399 mSv and 229 mSv per patient, in relapse and non-relapse groups, respectively. CT scans contributed over 80% of the imaging radiation exposure. The routine use of CT scans in the surveillance of patients with HL after curative treatment adds to healthcare costs and total body radiation exposure with a low yield. History and physical examination remain effective tools for the follow-up of patients.”
“Cigarette smoking causes cellular oxidative stress resulting in inflammatory diseases of lung wherein
transcription factor NF-kappa TPCA-1 B plays an important role. It is possible that vitamin C, an antioxidant, may prevent cigarette smoke (CS)-induced NF-kappa B activation that involves degradation of I-kappa B epsilon and nuclear translocation of c-Rel/p50 in alveolar epithelial cells. Therefore, to examine the hypothesis, we verified the effect of vitamin C on CS-induced expression of NF-kappa B driven luciferase reporter and NF-kappa B binding at its target DNA by EMSA in alveolar epithelial A549 cells. We also examined the level of I-kappa B epsilon and sub-cellular distribution of c-Rel by western blotting and immunofluorescence respectively in CSE-treated A549 cells with or without vitamin C pretreatment.
Herein, we examined the potential of HIV-1 negative factor (Nef) to impact KSHV viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6)-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. In vitro experiments showed that exogenous Nef penetrated vIL-6-expressing endothelial cells. Both internalized and ectopic expression of Nef in endothelial cells and fibroblasts synergized with vIL-6 to promote vascular tube formation and cell proliferation. Using a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model, we demonstrated that Nef synergistically promotes vIL-6-induced angiogenesis
and tumorigenesis. Animal experiments further showed that Nef facilitates vIL-6-induced angiogenesis and tumor formation in athymic nu/nu mice. Mechanistic studies indicated that Nef synergizes with vIL-6 to enhance angiogenesis check details and tumorigenesis by activating the AKT pathway in the CAM model, as well as nude mice. LY294002, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), significantly impaired the ability of Nef to promote vIL-6-induced tumorigenesis in an allograft model of nude mice. Our data provide first-line evidence that Nef may contribute to the pathogenesis underlying AIDS-KS in synergy with vIL-6. buy EVP4593 These novel findings also suggest that targeting the PI3K/AKT signal may be a potentially effective
therapeutic approach in AIDS-KS patients.”
“A field trial was conducted in a Lyme disease-endemic area of New Jersey to determine the efficacy of a doxycyline Roscovitine Cell Cycle inhibitor hyclate rodent bait to prophylactically protect and cure small-mammal reservoirs and reduce infection rates in questing Ixodes scapularis ticks for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The doxycycline-laden bait was formulated at a concentration of 500 mg/kg and delivered during the immature tick feeding season in rodent-targeted bait boxes. The percentage of infected small mammals recovered from
treated areas after 2 years of treatment was reduced by 86.9% for B. burgdorferi and 74% for A. phagocytophilum. Infection rates in questing nymphal ticks for both B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum were reduced by 94.3% and 92%, respectively. Results from this study indicate that doxycycline-impregnated bait is an effective means of reducing infection rates for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum in both rodent reservoirs and questing I. scapularis ticks.”
“Aristolochic adds are natural nitro-compounds found globally in the plant genus Aristolochia that have been implicated in the severe illness in humans termed aristolochic add nephropathy (AAN). Aristolochic adds undergo nitroreduction, among other metabolic reactions, and active intermediates arise that are carcinogenic.
\n\nObjective The aim of this study was to determine the influence of neuroendocrine differentiation on treatment response and survival in patients with advanced NSCLC.\n\nMethods A clinical trial included 236 patients (73.7% males), with diagnosis
of NSCLC, determined by histological verification. These patients were treated by combined P5091 chemo- and X-ray therapy at stage III (without pleural effusion) or chemotherapy only at stage III (with pleural effusion) and stage IV of NSCLC. When the progression had been noted at the stage III (without pleural effusion), the treatment was continued with X-ray therapy. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin A (ChrA) as well as synapthophysin (SYN) expression in tissue examples was determined by immunohistochemical analysis with monoclonal mouse anti human bodies (DAKO Comp, Denmark). The treatment was conducted during 4 to 6 chemotherapeutic cycles. The efficacy was assessed after the therapy regimen; median survival time was assessed after the randomization.\n\nResults NSE, ChrA and SYN expression were noted in 56 (23.7%), 33 (13.9%) and 39(16.5%) patients, respectively. Better therapeutic response was significantly higher in patients with expression of NSE, ChrA and SYN (p<0.05). There was significant correlation between
therapy response and the percentage of positive tumour cells with neuroendocrine differentiation (p<0.05). The one-year and two-year follow-up
survival period in patients with neuroendocrine expression was 64% (without SYN-117 chemical structure expression 28%; p<0.001) and 30% (p=0.000).\n\nConclusion Tissue expression of neuroendocrine markers influences greatly a therapeutic response in patients with advanced stage of NSCLC. Better therapeutic response was recorded in patients with possitive expression of neuroendocrine markers and higher percentage of positive tumour cells. Median survival time is higher in patients in III or IV stage of NSCLC, when neuroendocrine markers are expressed.”
“Background: Single-stage transanal endorectal pull-through (TEPT) is a new technique for surgery of Hirschsprung’s disease (HD). TEPT can be assisted by laparoscopy (laparoscopic assisted transanal pull-through, GSK2126458 LATP) or with non-additional procedure (total transanal endorectal pull-through, TTEP). This study was undertaken to evaluate the long-term outcome of these approaches in children with HD.\n\nMethods: We retrospectively studied 131 patients (112 males and 19 females) aged 7 days to 14 years who underwent single-stage TEPT from October 2005. to July 2008. The medical records were reviewed for pre-, intraand immediate post-operative complications. The data on stool pattern and complications were collected during the follow-up. Outcome was measured by continence evaluation score.\n\nResults: No patients had intraoperative complications, but 5 had minor immediate postoperative complications.
Tuber-specific cytosolic (pB33-cphA(Te)) as well as tuber-specific plastidic (pB33-PsbY-cphA(Te)) expression resulted in significant polymer accumulation solely in the tubers. In plants transformed with pB33-cphA(Te), both cyanophycin synthetase and cyanophycin were detected in the cytoplasm leading to an increase up to 2.3% cyanophycin of dry weight and resulting in small BTSA1 manufacturer and deformed tubers. In B33-PsbY-cphA(Te) tubers, cyanophycin synthetase and cyanophycin were exclusively
found in amyloplasts leading to a cyanophycin accumulation up to 7.5% of dry weight. These tubers were normal in size, some clones showed reduced tuber yield and sometimes exhibited brown sunken staining starting at tubers navel. During a storage period over of 32 weeks of one selected clone, the cyanophycin content R788 inhibitor was stable in B33-PsbY-cphA(Te) tubers but the stress symptoms increased. However, all tubers were able to germinate. Nitrogen fertilization in the greenhouse led not to an increased cyanophycin yield, slightly reduced protein content, decreased starch content, and changes in the amounts of bound and free arginine and aspartate, as compared with control tubers
“Two endophytic strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, originally isolated from the grass Festuca rubra, were artificially inoculated in tomato and bean plants. Strains 11-1L and 11-0BR were isolated from asymptomatic leaf fragments of both plant species at 3, 7, 14, 21, and
35 days after their inoculation. The percentage of leaf fragments infected Selleck WZB117 by the fungus in inoculated leaves decreased at each sampling time, and no systemic colonization of the plants occurred. The two T. cylindrosporum strains tested were isogenic, differing in the infection by the victorivirus TcV1, harboured by strain 11-1L, but not by 11-0BR. The percentage of infected leaf fragments in leaves inoculated with the virus infected strain was greater in bean than in tomato plants, while the virus-free strain was more successful in tomato than in bean plants. This result suggests that the mycovirus infection can affect the adaptation of T. cylindrosporum to particular host plants.”
“The bacterium Clostridium bornimense M2/40 is a mesophilic, anaerobic bacterium isolated from a two-phase biogas reactor continuously fed with maize silage and 5% wheat straw. Grown on glucose, it produced H-2, CO2, formiate, lactate and propionate as the main fermentation products, of which some compounds serve as substrates for methanogenic Archaea to form methane. Here, the whole genome sequence of the bacterium consisting of two circular replicons is reported. This genome information provides the basis for further studies addressing metabolic features of the isolate and its role in anaerobic biomass degradation. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
34-5.60 mIU/L. HsCPR was grouped using quartiles. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between hsCRP and SCH. After adjusting for gender and betel nut chewing,
stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that hsCRP groups were significantly associated with SCH. Compared to the lowest hsCRP quartile, the adjusted odds ratio of having SCH for hsCRP quartile II, III, and IV were 1.38 (0.48-3.98), 1.48 (0.56-3.96), and 2.59 (1.01-6.67), respectively. The significant increase in odds ratios for SCH in progressive hsCRP quartiles reveals a dose-response effect (p < 0.05). Moreover, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses showed that hsCRP was significantly positively associated with serum TSH level after adjusting for potential confounders. Adult Taiwanese with SCH were associated with elevated hsCRP quartiles.”
“Although dietary check details risk factors may differ between localized and advanced prostate cancer, data on associations
between the consumption of fruits and vegetables and risk of localized and advanced cancers are limited. We examined associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of prostate cancer in a Japanese population. During 1995-1998, a validated food frequency questionnaire was administered to 43,475 men aged 45-74 yr. During 321,061 person-years of follow-up until the end of 2004, 339 cases of prostate cancer were identified. Consumption of fruits or total vegetables was not associated with a decreased risk of total RG-7112 ic126 prostate cancer, with corresponding multivariate hazard ratios of the highest vs. lowest quartiles of 1.09 (95% CI = 0.77-1.53;
trend P = 0.39) selleck compound for fruits and 1.33 (95% CI = 0.93-1.91; trend P = 0.52) for total vegetables. Also, no association was observed for intake of either fruits or vegetables (total or any subtype) with localized or advanced prostate cancer. This prospective cohort study suggests that consumption of fruits or vegetables may not be associated with the risk of either localized or advanced prostate cancer in Japanese men. However, the possibility of confounding by detection bias on the risk of localized cancer could not be totally ruled out.”
“In this study, we experimentally revealed that the microscale surface geometry of anodes strongly affects the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs have much need to be improved in their power. The power generated by an MFC is considered to be strongly affected by the interaction between the organic bacteria and the inorganic electrode surfaces. In prior work, the nanoscale surface roughness of the anode was discussed; however, we consider that the microscale surface geometry may play a crucial role given the bacteria size of micrometer order. We used a two-chamber MFC and the direct electron transfer bacteria Shewanella putrefaciens.
66% (1/6).\n\nConclusion The combined use of 2D or 3D-US with 3D-HCT permits the best imaging evaluation. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Objective: The purpose of our study was to describe the clinical features, imaging characteristics, pathologic findings and outcome of microinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCISM).\n\nMaterials and methods: The records Bafilomycin A1 of 21 women diagnosed with microinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCISM) from November 1993 to September 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical presentation,
imaging and histopathologic features, and clinical follow-up were reviewed.\n\nResults: The 21 lesions all occurred in women with a mean age of 56 years (range, 27-79 years). Clinical findings were present in ten (48%): 10 with palpable masses, four with associated nipple discharge. Mean lesion size was 21 mm, (range, 9-65 mm). The lesion
size in 62% was 15 mm or smaller. Mammographic findings were calcifications only in nine (43%) and an associated or other finding in nine (43%) [mass (n = 7), asymmetry (n = 1), architectural distortion (n = 1)]. Three lesions were mammographically occult. Sonographic findings available in 11 lesions showed a solid hypoechoic mass in 10 cases (eight irregular in shape, one round, one oval). One lesion was not seen on sonography. On histopathologic examination, all lesions were diagnosed as DCISM, with a focus of invasive carcinoma less than or equal to C59 wnt 1 mm in diameter within an area of DCIS. Sixteen (76%) lesions were high nuclear grade, four (19%) were intermediate and one was low grade (5%). Sixteen (76%) had the presence of necrosis. Positivity for ER and PR was noted in 75% and 38%. Nodal metastasis was present in one case with axillary lymph node dissection. Mean follow-up time for 16 women was 36 months without evidence of local or systemic recurrence. One patient developed a second primary in the contralateral breast 3 years later.\n\nConclusion: The clinical presentation and radiologic appearance of a mass are commonly encountered in DCISM lesions (48% and 57%,
respectively), irrespective of lesion size, mimicking findings seen in invasive carcinoma. Despite its potential for nodal metastasis (5% in our series), mean follow-up at 36 months was good with no evidence of local or selleck chemical systemic recurrence at follow-up. Knowledge of these clinical and imaging findings in DCISM lesions may alert the clinician to the possibility of microinvasion and guide appropriate management. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A LC/MS method for the analysis of the highly polar anti-diabetic drug metformin in plasma samples is compared to an ion-pair HPLC method with UV detection. Both methods showed good linearity in the concentration range of 50 to 2000 ng/mL, good precision and accuracy and similar sensitivity. The LC-MS method has the advantage of a simpler and faster preparation procedure, shorter analytical times and higher selectivity.
Among 65 titi monkeys housed in a building, 23 (34%) developed upper respiratory symptoms that progressed to fulminant pneumonia
and hepatitis, and 19 of 23 monkeys, or 83% of those infected, died or were humanely euthanized. Whole-genome sequencing of TMAdV revealed that this adenovirus is a new species and highly divergent, sharing <57% pairwise nucleotide identity selleck chemical with other adenoviruses. Cultivation of TMAdV was successful in a human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line, but not in primary or established monkey kidney cells. At the onset of the outbreak, the researcher in closest contact with the monkeys developed an acute respiratory illness, with symptoms persisting for 4 weeks, and had a convalescent serum sample seropositive for TMAdV. A clinically ill family member, despite having no contact with the CNPRC, also tested positive, and screening of a set of 81 random adult blood donors from the Western United States detected TMAdV-specific neutralizing antibodies in 2 individuals (2/81, or 2.5%). These findings
VX-770 molecular weight raise the possibility of zoonotic infection by TMAdV and human-to-human transmission of the virus in the population. Given the unusually high case fatality rate from the outbreak (83%), it is unlikely that titi monkeys are the native host species for TMAdV, and the natural reservoir of the virus is still unknown. The discovery of TMAdV, a novel adenovirus with the capacity to infect both monkeys and humans, suggests that adenoviruses should be monitored closely as potential causes of cross-species outbreaks.”
“Very little empirical work has been done to assess the potential impacts of climate change upon terrestrial biodiversity AZD5582 mw within small islands, many of which contribute to global species diversity due to high levels of endemicity. This study illustrates projections of not only individual but also the ‘collective’ response of a group of high conservation value tree species to climate change within the Caribbean small island of Trinidad. The species distribution modelling algorithm MaxEnt was used to construct models
of the realised present environmental space occupied by these species based on present day climate and other environmental factors. These models were then used to estimate present and future (2050; SRES A2) distributions of these species across Trinidad. Both present and future model output were incorporated to create change maps which illustrate projected expansions, contractions and areas of stable environmental space for each species. Individual change maps were combined to create a ‘collective’ change map portraying projected changes in the environmental space of this species group as a whole. Most individual species and the collective group response were projected to lose more than 50% of present environmental space, with the latter being limited to the southern edge of the island.
sAPP alpha shedding SBE-β-CD is inhibited by P2X7R antagonists or knockdown
of P2X7R with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and is not observed in neural cells from P2X7R-deficient mice. P2X7R-dependent APP-cleavage is independent of extracellular calcium and strongly inhibited by hydroxamate-based metalloprotease inhibitors, TAPI-2 and GM6001. However, knockdown of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-9 (ADAM9), ADAM10 and ADAM17 by specific siRNA, known to have alpha-secretase activity, does not block the P2X7R-dependent non-amyloidogenic pathway. Using several specific pharmacological inhibitors, we demonstrate that the mitogen-activated protein kinase modules Erk1/2 and JNK are involved in P2X7R-dependent alpha-secretase activity. Our study suggests that P2X7R, which is expressed in hippocampal neurons and glial cells, is a potential therapeutic target in AD.”
“Recent studies showed that most cells have receptors and enzymes responsible for metabolism of vitamin D. Several diseases have been linked to vitamin D deficiency, such as hypertension, diabetes, depression, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and chronic pain syndromes
such as fibromyalgia. The association between fibromyalgia and vitamin D deficiency is very controversial in the literature with conflicting studies and methodological problems, which leads to more questions CA4P than answers. The purpose of this article is to raise questions about the association of hypovitaminosis D with fibromyalgia considering causal relationships, treatment, and pathophysiological explanations.”
“Objective: To study the association between the epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE epsilon 4) and delirium in a stroke population. Methods: 527 consecutive stroke patients were screened for delirium during the first week of admission with the confusion assessment method. In three hundred fifty-three patients genomic DNA isolation was available. Results: The incidence of delirium after stroke in the 353 patients was 11.3%. There was no association between APOE epsilon 4 and delirium. Even after adjustment for IQCODE,
stroke localization, stroke subtype, stroke severity, infection, and brain atrophy no association was found (odds ratio: 0.9; GW4869 research buy 95% confidence interval: 0.4-2.1). Delirium did not last longer in patients with an APOE epsilon 4 allele compared to patients without an APOE epsilon 4 allele (median: 5.6 days [range: 1-21] versus median: 4.6 days [range: 1-15], p = 0.5). Conclusion: There was no association between the presence of an APOE epsilon 4 allele and the occurrence of delirium in the acute phase after stroke.”
“Objective: To compare the clinical characteristics and symptom severity of children with obsessive disorder (OCD) plus autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children with OCD plus Tourette’s syndrome (TS) or OCD alone.
In contrast, the pretemporal approach requires posterolateral retraction that seems to be less injurious to the temporal lobe and better tolerated clinically. We hypothesized that the pretemporal approach provides ample exposure, more gentle retraction, and better clinical results than the subtemporal
approach.\n\nMETHODS: Standard orbitozygomatic-pterional and subtemporal approaches were performed on both sides of 4 formalin-fixed cadaver heads for morphometric measurements. Temporal lobe retraction was quantified Citarinostat molecular weight for each approach in terms of brain shift and retraction pressure by using both sides of 3 fresh, unfixed cadaver heads. Similar morphometric measurements were made in 14 patients in whom bypasses to the distal posterior circulation were performed. The effect of temporal lobe retraction was assessed with
edema volumes on postoperative computed tomography scans.\n\nRESULTS: In cadaver heads and in patients, the pretemporal approach optimized exposure of the P2A segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and the subtemporal approach optimized exposure of the lateral pontomesencephalic segment of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA). Working depths and lengths of exposed artery were similar with these 2 approaches, Crenigacestat purchase but the PICA was a larger recipient than the SCA. Brain shift was 42% less with pretemporal than with subtemporal retraction, and retraction pressure was 43% less with pretemporal than with subtemporal retraction. The volume of temporal lobe edema was 56% less in CAL-101 in vivo patients with bypasses performed with the pretemporal approach as
compared with the subtemporal approach.\n\nCONCLUSION: Pretemporal exposure of the PCA is equivalent to subtemporal exposure of the SCA, but the pretemporal approach is facilitated by a larger recipient artery. Posterolateral temporal lobe retraction associated with the pretemporal approach is gentler than superior retraction with the subtemporal approach. These results validate our preference for the pretemporal approach over the subtemporal approach when performing deep bypasses to the posterior circulation.”
“Mast cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. They are generally classified into 2 phenotypically distinct populations: connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMCs) and mucosal-type mast cells (MMCs). The number of mast cells that can be obtained from tissues is limited, making it difficult to study the function of mast cells. Here, we report the generation and characterization of CTMC-like mast cells derived from mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. iPS cell-derived mast cells (iPSMCs) were generated by the OP9 coculture method or embryoid body formation method.
Multinomial logistical regression was conducted to determine if the belief variables significantly predicted dietitians teaching behavior. Binary logistic regression was used to determine which independent variable was the better predictor of whether dietitians currently taught. Controlling for age, income, education, and gender, the multinomial logistical regression was significant. Perceived behavioral control was the best predictor of whether a dietitian currently taught fresh vegetable food safety. Factors affecting whether dietitians currently
taught were confidence in fresh vegetable food safety knowledge, being socially influenced, and a positive attitude toward the teaching behavior. These results validate the importance of teaching food safety effectively and may be used to create more informed food safety curriculum for dietitians. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. mTOR inhibitor All rights reserved.”
“Few studies have assessed the natural history of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhotic ascites. We investigated the natural history of patients with HBV-related cirrhotic ascites hospitalized to control ascites and determined
their prognosis, including survival rates and prognostic factors affecting survival.\n\nBetween January 1996 and December 2005, 203 consecutive patients with HBV-related cirrhotic ascites were followed for a median of 80.7 months (range, 15-149) after their first significant ascitic decompensation that required hospitalization.\n\nThe mean age of all patients was 52.6 years. Male gender predominated ABT 737 (male/female, 138/65). A subgroup analysis of 165 patients who had ascitic decompensation as their first episode of hepatic decompensation
revealed that gastrointestinal variceal bleeding developed after a median interval of 8 months following ascitic decompensation in 31 (18.8%) patients, hepatic encephalopathy occurred at 9 months in 53 (32.1%), spontaneous bacterial peritonitis appeared at 12.7 months in 24 (14.5%), hepatorenal syndrome occurred at 8.1 months in five (3%), and hepatocellular carcinoma was observed at 21.2 months in 10 (6.1%). The overall median survival was 12.4 months. The 1- and 3-year survival Apoptosis Compound Library screening rates were 50.7 and 18.7%. The prognostic factors that independently correlated with survival at the time of ascitic decompensation were Child-Pugh classification B/C (P = 0.030), serum white blood cell (WBC; P = 0.035), serum creatinine (Cr; P = 0.039), serum sodium (Na; P = 0.010), and antiviral therapy (P = 0.040).\n\nThe prognosis of HBV-related cirrhotic patients with ascitic decompensation is poor. Child-Pugh class, serum WBC/Cr/Na, and antiviral therapy primarily influenced survival.”
“Explosion puffing drying was investigated as potential means for drying winter jujube.