Here we exploited the behavioral differences between good and poor avoiders to elucidate
the AA neurocircuit. Rats received Sidman AA training and expression of the activity-dependent immediate-early gene c-fos was measured after a shock-free AA test. Six brain regions with known or putative roles in AA were evaluated: amygdala, periaqueductal gray, nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and hippocampus. Good avoiders showed little Pavlovian freezing and high AA rates at test, the opposite of poor avoiders. Although c-Fos activation was observed throughout the brain, differential activation was found only in subregions of amygdala and PFC. Interestingly, selleck kinase inhibitor c-Fos correlated with avoidance and freezing in only five of 20 distinct areas evaluated: lateral amygdala, central amygdala, medial amygdala, basal amygdala, and infralimbic PFC. Thus, activity in specific amygdala-PFC circuits likely mediates the competition between instrumental actions and Pavlovian reactions after AA training. Individual differences in AA behavior, long considered a nuisance by researchers, may be the key to elucidating the AA find more neurocircuit and understanding pathological response profiles.”
“Background Acute posttraumatic tracheobronchial lesions are rare events associated with significant
morbidity and mortality. They are caused by blunt and penetrating trauma, or they are iatrogenic, appearing after intubation or tracheotomy. Although surgery has traditionally been considered the treatment of choice for these injuries, recent reports show that conservative treatment can be effective in selected patients. The aim of this AG-014699 study was to evaluate the role of surgical and conservative management of these lesions, differentiated on the basis of clinical and endoscopic criteria.\n\nMethods From January 1993 to October 2010, a total of 50 patients with acute posttraumatic tracheobronchial lesions were referred for treatment to our department. In all, 36 patients had iatrogenic injuries of the airway, and 14 had
lesions resulting from blunt or penetrating trauma.\n\nResults Of the 30 patients who underwent surgery, the lesion was repaired with interrupted absorbable sutures in 29; the remaining patient, with an associated tracheoesophageal fistula, underwent single-stage tracheal resection and reconstruction and closure of the fistula. In all, 20 patients were treated conservatively: clinical observation in 5 patients, airway decompression with a mini-tracheotomy cannula in 4 spontaneously breathing patients, and tracheotomy with the cuff positioned distal to the lesion in 11 mechanically ventilated patients. One surgical and one conservatively-managed patient died after treatment (4% overall mortality). Complete recovery and healing were achieved in all the remaining patients.