Ovaries were fixed, paraffin-embedded, Histone Methyltransf inhibitor and used for immunofluorescence detection of factor VIII (a marker of endothelial cells). Immunostaining of eNOS and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were performed with specific monoclonal antibodies. Vasculature
and positive staining of eNOS and PCNA were quantitatively evaluated with the image analysis. Follicles were classified by size (small, medium, and large) and by structure as healthy and atretic follicles (n = 82). The expression of factor VIII and eNOS were detected greater in the blood vessels of the theca layers of the healthy follicles than those in atretic follicles. The labeling indices (Us) in granulosa and theca cells were greater (P < 0.05) in the healthy small and medium follicles than in the healthy large follicles. Vasculature, capillary area density, and capillary number density were positively correlated with eNOS expression and the Lis of granulosa and theca cells but were negatively correlated with the healthy follicle size. During the growing phase of antral follicle in Bos indicus, relationships
among vasculature, mitotic activity, and eNOS were observed predominantly in healthy antral follicles. Thus, these data highlight the importance of vasculature, cell proliferation, and eNOS expression of growing and atretic follicles in the first follicular wave.
(c) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Teratomas account for 3% of all childhood tumors, with the majority occurring buy SBI-0206965 in the sacrococcygeal region and in the ovary. selleckchem Intradural spinal teratomas are extremely rare dysembryogenetic tumors. Spinal cord teratomas may be extradural, intradural or intramedullary. Intramedullary ones are the least frequently seen. We have extensively reviewed the literature for intramedullary spinal cord teratomas in children. Although an intramedullary teratoma of the conus medullaris in children is a rare entity, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of masses involving the conus medullaris.”
“Object. Conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices continue to rely on an open-loop system in which stimulation is independent of functional neural feedback. The authors previously proposed that as the foundation of a DBS “smart” device, a closed-loop system based on neurochemical feedback, may have the potential to improve therapeutic outcomes. Alterations in neurochemical release are thought to be linked to the clinical benefit of DBS, and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has been shown to be effective for recording these evoked neurochemical changes. However, the combination of FSCV with conventional DBS devices interferes with he recording and identification of the evoked analytes.
Identifying factors that predict definitive therapy
may help guide early initiation of treatment. The aim of the study was to identify clinical, laboratory, and radiologic predictors associated with clinicians’ prescription of definitive therapy for patients with MPE. METHODS: A multicenter, observational study was conducted over 55 months involving tertiary centers in Perth, Western Australia, Australia, and Lleida, Spain. Demographic, clinical, radiologic, biochemical, and histologic data and the treatments received were recorded. Logistic regression was performed to determine the variables useful for predicting definitive therapy. RESULTS: Data of 540 patients (365 from Perth and 184 from Lleida) were analyzed; 537 fulfilled the criteria of an MPE. Definitive Ulixertinib therapy was used in 288 patients (53.6%): 199 received a pleurodesis and 89 an IPC. Univariate analysis of the combined cohort revealed that definitive therapy was more likely if the effusion has low pH, either as a continuous variable (OR, 30.30; P smaller than .01) or with a pH cutoff of smaller than 7.2 (OR, 2.09; P=.03); was large ( bigger than 50% of hemithorax) (OR, 2.75; P smaller
than .01); or was associated with mesothelioma (OR, 1.83; P smaller than .01). Following multivariate analysis, low pleural pH (OR, 37.04; P smaller than .01), large effusions (OR, 3.31; P smaller than .01), and increasing Fer-1 research buy age (OR 1.02, P=.01) were associated with the use of definitive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MPE with an effusion of low pleural fluid pH and large size on radiographs NSC23766 datasheet at first presentation are more likely to be treated with pleurodesis and/or IPC.”
“ErbB receptors play an important role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development, but overexpression or poor downregulation
can result in enhanced signaling and cancerous growth. ErbB signaling is terminated by clathrin-dependent receptor-mediated endocytosis. followed by incorporation in multi-vesicular bodies and subsequent degradation in lysosomes. In contrast to EGFR. ErbB2 displays poor ligand-induced downregulation and enhanced recycling, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this difference are poorly understood. Given our previous observation that both EGFR and an EGFR-ErbB2 chimera undergo Cbl-mediated K63-polyubiquitination, we investigated in the present study whether activation of the EGFR and the EGFR-ErbB2 chimera is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of the ESCRT-0 complex subunit Hrs and AMSH-mediated deubiquitination. EGF stimulation of the EGFR resulted in efficient Hrs tyrosine phosphorylation and deubiquitination by the K63-polyubiquitin chain-specific deubiquitinating enzyme AMSH. In contrast, EGF activation of EGFR-ErbB2 showed significantly decreased Hrs tyrosine phosphorylation and deubiquitination by AMSH.
The results of a bone marrow aspiration showed acute myeloid leukemia M2 with translocation t(8,21) associated with granulocytic sarcoma. The patient was treated with high dose chemotherapy and had a complete selleck inhibitor remission after autologous stem cell transplantation.”
“Macrophytes in shallow lakes have the potential to alter fish-zooplankton interactions considerably.
How far predation effects by newly hatched fish (0+ fish) on zooplankton are influenced by different types of aquatic vegetation, and how effects change during the first weeks of fish ontogeny remains, however, less clear. In order to address these issues, we examined the predation effects of 0+ fish on zooplankton in three different habitats during spring and summer in a shallow, eutrophic lake in Sweden. Zooplankton and fish samples were taken along the reed vegetation, in a shallow, unvegetated part of the lake and above dense, submersed vegetation to relate 0+ fish predation effects to vegetation complexity.
All the size classes of zooplankton decreased Fludarabine clinical trial when 0+ fish started to feed on them in all the different habitats. The magnitude of predation effects depended, however, on both the size of zooplankton and the complexity of the vegetation. While small cladocerans could maintain stable populations in the dense Chara vegetation after 0+ fish had started to feed on them, medium and large-sized zooplankton disappeared from all the habitats. Our results suggest that only small cladocerans can use dense vegetation as a refuge against 0+ fish predation, while medium and large zooplankton are not safe from 0+ fish predation in any habitat.”
“Purpose Our study described patient and caregiver experiences with care transitions PLX4032 chemical structure following hospital discharge to home for patients with mobility impairments receiving physical and occupational therapy. Methods The study was a qualitative longitudinal interview study. Interviews were conducted at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months post discharge. Participants were men, Caucasian, between
70 and 88 years old, and had either a medical or surgical diagnosis. Results Breakdowns in communication in four domains impacted continuity of care and patient recovery: (a) Poor communication between patients and providers regarding ongoing care at home, (b) Whom to contact post discharge, (c) Provider response to phone calls following discharge, and (d) Provider-provider communication. Discussion and Conclusions Improved systems are needed to address patient concerns after discharge from the hospital, specifically for patients with mobility impairments. Better communication between patients, hospital providers, and home care providers is needed to improve care coordination, facilitate recovery at home, and prevent potential adverse outcomes.”
“Wearable acceleration sensors are increasingly used for the assessment of free-living physical activity. Acceleration sensor calibration is a potential source of error.
“The crystal structure of the title calcium complex, [Ca(C(8)H(11-)NO(5)PS)(2)](n), is composed of a polymeric chain, which is formed due to two bridging sulfonyl groups linking Ca(II) ions in a O-S-O-Ca manner. Thus, the coordination environment of the Ca(II) ions is composed of six O atoms belonging to the phosphoryl and sulfonyl groups of two chelate rings and two additional O atoms of two bridging sulfonyl groups. The coordination polyhedron of
the central atom (2 symmetry) has a distorted octahedral this website geometry.”
“Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and several simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) encode for a transmembrane protein known as Vpu (viral protein U). While one of the smallest of the HIV-1 proteins, it has two important functions within virus-infected Rigosertib cell line cells. The first of these functions is the down-regulation of the CD4 receptor to prevent its interaction with the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Vpu interacts
with the CD4 receptor in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), resulting in its re-translocation across the RER and subsequent degradation via the proteasomal pathway. The second major function of the Vpu protein is to facilitate release of virus from infected cells. Previous studies have shown that virus release is cell type specific, suggesting that certain cells may express a restriction factor that inhibits virus release in the absence of Vpu. Recently, bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2/HM1.24/CD317/tetherin) has been identified as this factor. This review will focus on new findings within the last four years on the role of Vpu in CD4 down-regulation and the restriction of virus release from cells. We will relate these findings to virus pathogenesis and propose questions regarding BST-2 as a restriction factor.”
“Study Objective: To investigate whether a patient’s propofol
SN-38 purchase effect-site concentration at return 10 Consciousness (ROC) was related to the propofol effect-site concentration at loss of consciousness (LOC) and to patients’ individual demographic parameters.\n\nDesign: Prospective study.\n\nSetting: Operating room.\n\nPatients: 31 ASA physical status I and II neurosurgical patients with Glasgow Coma Score > 15, and scheduled to receive total intravenous anesthesia with effect-site target controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol and remifentanil.\n\nInterventions: A constant propofol infusion was administered until LOC. At LOC, remifentanil started with a plasma concentration target of 2.5 ng mL(-1).\n\nMain Results: Propofol concentration at LOC was 4.9 +/- 1 mu g mL(-1). At ROC, propofol and remifentanil concentrations were 1.16 +/- 0.3 mu g mL(-1) and 3.41 +/- 1.5 mu g mL(-1). Significant correlation was observed between propofol concentrationa at ROC and LOC, between propofol concentration at ROC and patient age (48.
The epidemic month was October 2009; 34 patients were boys, and median age was 7 years. Pandemic influenza-associated respiratory diseases included pneumonia (n = 42), bronchitis (n = 3), and pharyngitis (n = 1). The median time from onset to admission was 3 days. Children were divided into those with severe (n = 32) versus nonsevere illnesses (n = 14) according E1 Activating inhibitor to Japanese guidelines. Significant features in the severe group
were younger age, previous asthmatic attack, exacerbation of asthma, decreased oxygen saturation, elevated white blood cell/neutrophil counts and serum lactate dehydrogenase, and longer times from admission to being afebrile and discharged. Both groups showed lymphopenia at admission. Additional infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae was frequent in the severe group. Whereas 44 patients received antiviral therapy (median times from onset to initiation 2 days), 32 received antibiotics (median duration
7 days). All children recovered, with a median hospital stay of 8 days. Our observations suggest CH5183284 chemical structure that history of asthma and preschool age might be risk factors for severe illness. Prompt initiation of antiviral and antibiotic treatments should be considered to prevent development of severe illness.”
“Background. Previous work has shown that full-term infants who were healthy contacted a toy with their feet several weeks before they did so with their hands and that movement training advanced feet reaching. Certain populations of preterm infants are delayed in hand reaching; however, feet reaching has not been investigated in any preterm population.\n\nObjective. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether preterm
infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age contacted a toy with their feet at 2 months of corrected age, before doing so with their hands, and whether movement training advanced feet reaching.\n\nDesign. This study was a randomized controlled trial.\n\nMethods. Twenty-six infants born preterm were randomly assigned to receive daily movement training or daily social training. During the 8-week training period, the infants were videotaped in a testing session every other week from 2 to 4 months of age.\n\nResults. GSK1904529A Both groups contacted the toy with their feet at 2 months of age during the first testing session prior to training, at an age when no infants consistently contacted the toy with their hands. After 8 weeks of training, the movement training group displayed a greater number and longer duration of foot-toy contacts compared with the social training group.\n\nConclusions. These results suggest that movement experiences advance feet reaching as they do for hand reaching. For clinicians, feet-oriented play may provide an early intervention strategy to encourage object interaction for movement impairments within the first months of postnatal life.
These different environments are modeled by a unique “water” scaling factor that decreases or
increases the strength of hydrogen bonds depending on whether water contacts the acceptor or donor atoms or the bond is fully desolvated, respectively. Our empirical energies are fully consistent with mobile water molecules having a strong polarization effect in direct intermolecular interactions. Proteins 2010; 78:3226-3234. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Tuberculosis Chk inhibitor (113) is an important public health problem in Nepal. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial and temporal variations in TB incidence in Nepal. Data regarding TB cases were obtained from the Nepal National Tuberculosis Center (NTC) for 2003-2010
and analyzed. Models were developed for TB incidence by gender, year and location using linear regression of log-transformed incidence rates. Apart from a relatively small number of outliers, these models provided a good fit, as indicated by residual plots and the r-squared statistic (0.94). The overall incidence of TB was 1.31 cases per 1,000 population with a male to female incidence rate ratio of 1.83. There were trends of increasing Caspase inhibitor incidence in TB for recent years among both sexes. There were marked variations by location with higher rates occurring in the Terai region and relatively moderate and low rates of TB in the Hill and Mountain regions, respectively. TB incidence was also higher in the capital city Kathmandu and other metropolitan Selleckchem QNZ cities. A log-linear regression model can be used as a simple method to model TB incidence rates that vary by location and year. These findings provide information for health authorities to help establish effective prevention programs in specific areas where the disease burden is relatively high.”
“Hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD), also referred
to as catalytic CVD (Cat-CVD), has been used to produce Si-containing thin films, nanomaterials, and functional polymer coatings that have found wide applications in microelectronic and photovoltaic devices, in automobiles, and in biotechnology. The success of HWCVD is largely due to its various advantages, including high deposition rate, low substrate temperatures, lack of plasma-induced damage, and large-area uniformity. Film growth in HWCVD is induced by reactive species generated from primary decomposition on the metal wire or from secondary reactions in the gas phase. In order to achieve a rational and efficient optimization of the process, it is essential to identify the reactive species and to understand the chemical kinetics that govern the production of these precursor species for film growth. In this Account, we report recent progress in unraveling the complex gas-phase reaction chemistry in the HWCVD growth of silicon carbide thin films using organosilicon compounds as single-source precursors.
3 +/- 11.6%). MEAM1 longevity and fecundity were highest on tomato (14.7 +/- 1.7 days and 82.4 +/- 9.9 eggs), while AsiaII
1 longevity and fecundity were highest on cotton (23.7 +/- 2.5 days and 135.2 +/- 13.6 eggs). The MEAM1 intrinsic rates of increase (r(m)) on cotton and vegetable were similar (0.08-0.10), whereas the AsiaII 1 r(m) on cotton (0.15) was higher than on vegetables (0.11-0.13). The biology of MEAM1 from Pakistan was compared with published studies; it had a consistently slower rate of development, lower percentage survival, lower adult longevity, longer generation time, lower net reproductive rate and lower r(m). CONCLUSIONS: MEAM1 performed similarly across all hosts, whereas AsiaII 1 performed better on cotton. The comparison between the Pakistani MEAM1 with Sapanisertib published studies suggests that the invasive MEAM1 may have higher performance. (C) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry”
“A newly isolated strain, SJY1, identified as Ochrobactrum sp., utilizes nicotine as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Strain SJY1 could efficiently degrade
VX-680 datasheet nicotine via a variant of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways (the VPP pathway), which highlights bacterial metabolic diversity in relation to nicotine degradation. A 97-kbp DNA fragment containing six nicotine degradation-related genes was obtained by gap closing from the genome sequence of strain SJY1. Three genes, designated vppB, vppD, and vppE, in the VPP pathway were cloned and heterologously expressed, and the related proteins were characterized. The vppB gene encodes a flavin-containing amine oxidase converting 6-hydroxynicotine to 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine. Although VppB specifically catalyzes the dehydrogenation of 6-hydroxynicotine rather than nicotine, it shares higher amino acid sequence identity with nicotine oxidase (38%) from the pyrrolidine pathway than with its isoenzyme
(6-hydroxy-L-nicotine oxidase, 24%) from the pyridine pathway. The vppD gene encodes an NADH-dependent flavin-containing monooxygenase, which catalyzes the hydroxylation of 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine to 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. VppD shows 62% amino acid sequence Kinase Inhibitor Library cell line identity with the hydroxylase (HspB) from Pseudomonas putida strain S16, whereas the specific activity of VppD is similar to 10-fold higher than that of HspB. VppE is responsible for the transformation of 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the VPP pathway, which evolved independently from nicotinic acid degradation, might have a closer relationship with the pyrrolidine pathway. The proteins and functional pathway identified here provide a sound basis for future studies aimed at a better understanding of molecular principles of nicotine degradation.”
“Anthracene-polyamine conjugates inhibit the in vitro proliferation of the intraerythrocytic human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) in the nM to mu M range.
Little is known about SR alterations in CHF. We determined sarcoplasmic reticulum adenosine triphosphatase (SR ATPase) activity in different types of click here skeletal muscle fibres of CHF patients.\n\nMethods: SR ATPase activity, succinate dehydrogenase
(SDH) activity and myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase ( M ATPase) activity in single fibres of the vastus lateralis muscle in 16 CHF patients and 5 controls was determined using quantitative enzyme histochemistry.\n\nResults: SR ATPase activity of type II skeletal muscle fibers was significantly higher compared to type I fibres. SR ATPase activity in type II skeletal muscle fibres of CHF patients was higher than in control subjects.\n\nConclusion:
Increased skeletal muscle SR ATPase activity contributes to reduced exercise tolerance in CHF patients. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Mood disorders are associated with various neurocognitive deficits. However, few studies have reported the impairment of motor dexterity in unipolar depression and bipolar disorder. In the present study, manual dexterity was compared between unipolar major depression, bipolar disorder, and healthy controls.\n\nMethods: Manual dexterity was assessed by the Purdue pegboard test in 98 patients with unipolar major depression, 48 euthymic or depressed patients with bipolar disorder, and 158 Mocetinostat in vitro healthy controls, matched for age and gender.\n\nResults: Compared to healthy controls, sum of the scores of right, left, and both hands subtests (R + L+ B) was significantly lower in both patients with unipolar depression and bipolar disorder (P= 0.0034 and P<0.0001, respectively). Furthermore, R + L + B was significantly lower in bipolar disorder compared to unipolar depression (P=0.0016). Lithium dose and chlorpromazine equivalent dose of antipsychotics were significantly negatively correlated with some of the subtest scores. On the other hand, depression severity did
not significantly correlate with any of the subtest scores. Difference in R + L+ B between unipolar depression and bipolar disorder remained statistically significant even after controlling for gender, age, lithium dose, and chlorpromazine equivalent see more dose (P = 0.0028).\n\nLimitations\n\nBipolar patients during manic episode were not included in the study.\n\nConclusions: Gross movement dexterity was impaired in both patients with unipolar depression and bipolar disorder. The severity of impairment was significantly greater in patients with bipolar disorder. The functional difference between unipolar and bipolar patients may suggest different pathological conditions between the two depressive disorders. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.”
“Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a physiological mechanism that serves for controlled deletion of damaged cells.
Bosutinib is a kinase inhibitor that targets the BCR-ABL kinase. The recommended dose is 500 mg of bosutinib once daily. The main evidence of efficacy for NCT-501 mouse bosutinib
was based on a CML subgroup analysis of study 3160A4-200, a phase I/II study of bosutinib in Ph+ leukemia in imatinib-resistant or intolerant CML. The subgroup was defined based on the presence of a BCR-ABL kinase domain mutation that would be expected to confer resistance to dasatinib (F317, E255) or nilotinib (E255, Y253, F359) and expected to have sensitivity to bosutinib or based on the presence of medical conditions or prior toxicities that may predispose the patient to unacceptable risk in the setting of nilotinib or dasatinib therapy. A conditional marketing authorization was granted because of the limited evidence of efficacy and safety currently supporting this last-line indication.”
“The development of a highly parallel simulation of the acousto-optic effect is detailed. The simulation supports optically heterogeneous simulation domains under insonification by arbitrary monochromatic ultrasound
fields. An adjoint method for acousto-optics Selleckchem Salubrinal is proposed to permit point-source/point-detector simulations. The flexibility and efficiency of this simulation code is demonstrated in the development of spatial absorption sensitivity maps which are in broad agreement with current experimental investigations. The simulation code has the potential to provide guidance in the feasibility and optimization of future studies of the acousto-optic technique, and its speed may permit its use as part of an iterative inversion model. 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). [DOI: 10.1117/1.JBO.17.4.045002]“
“Green tea (GT) and its components have been shown to possess antiobesity properties 3-Methyladenine molecular weight and the corresponding mechanisms of action are being investigated, given the epidemic proportions of obesity incidence. In the current work, we used 12-mo-old male Wistar rats
to test the effect of 6 mo of treatment with GT as the sole drinking beverage (52.8 +/- 6.4 mL/d) on adipose tissue (AT). AT aromatase expression was determined by Western blotting, plasma concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone were determined by RIA, and achipocyte size determined by measuring diameter in tissue sections. Proliferation and apoptosis were also assessed by Ki67 immunostaining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling, respectively. Evaluations were made in subcutaneous (sc) AT and visceral (v) AT. Body weight increased over time in both groups (P < 0.001), but the increase was more pronounced in controls (P < 0.001) and food and fluid intake did not influence that effect. At the end of the experiment, aromatase expression increased in the AT (318.5 +/- 60.6% of control in scAT, P < 0.05, and 285.5 +/- 82.9% of control in vAT, P < 0.01).
Unlike typical SECM experiments, in which a disk-shaped tip approaches a relatively smooth sample, complex geometries of the mobile device and its surroundings make distance sensing challenging. Additional issues include the possibility of electrode surface contamination in biological fluids and the requirement for a biologically compatible redox mediator.”
“While analyzing wild mosquitoes caught in Paju, South Korea, we identified one egg-laying hybrid female between Anopheles kleini and Anopheles sinensis. Additional evidence was obtained by identifying several F(1) progeny and conducting self-crossing between them. ALK inhibitor Sequencing
of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence suggested that the maternal origin of the female should be An. sinensis. Additionally, observation see more of only two distinct genotypes of F(1) progeny (double band, hybrid type, and single-band An. sinensis type) more closely resembled a situation of natural back-crossing between a hybrid female and male An. sinensis. Results of self-crossing between F(1) progeny was impaired and yielded abnormally low larval hatchings (3.7%). Overall, the observation of 1 female from 658 caught-wild mosquitoes indicated possible natural hybridization among members of the Hyrcanus group
from South Korea.”
“Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) colonizes the human intestine, causing haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). find more Treatment options are limited to intravenous fluids
in part because sublethal doses of some antibiotics have been shown to stimulate increased toxin release and enhance the risk of progression to HUS. Preventative antimicrobial agents, especially those that build on the natural antimicrobial action of the host defence, may provide a better option. In order to survive the acid stress of gastric passage, STEC is equipped with numerous acid resistance and DNA repair mechanisms. Inhibition of acid-induced DNA repair may offer a strategy to target survival of ingested STEC. We report here that brief pretreatment with a novel antimicrobial peptide, which was previously shown to inhibit bacterial DNA repair, significantly and profoundly reduces survival of acid-stressed O157 : H7 and non-O157 : H7 STEC seropathotypes that are highly associated with HUS. Reduction in survival rates of STEC range from 3 to 5 log. We also show that peptide/acid treatment results in little or no increase in toxin production, thereby reducing the risk of progression to HUS. This study identifies the peptide wrwycr as a potential new candidate for a preventative antimicrobial for STEC infection.”
“CSF N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) has been found to be elevated in some hypomyelinating disorders. This study addressed the question whether it could be used as a marker for hypomyelination and as a means to distinguish between hypomyelinating disorders biochemically.