Finally, an improved washout can be achieved in a pulsatile envir

Finally, an improved washout can be achieved in a pulsatile environment due to the SGB ability to pump inwardly, even in the absence of a pressure head.”
“Objective: to compare the distribution of caesarean rates in the Robson’s 10 groups classification in order to see if any change occurred after the implementation of an audit and feedback intervention.

Design: cross sectional, before and after an audit and feedback study. Setting: a university hospital in Brazil.\n\nMethods: clinical records of all births during two three months-periods were evaluated. Each case of CS was classified into one of ten mutually exclusive categories according to obstetric characteristics. The proportion of CS in each group was compared in both periods.\n\nResults: total number of deliveries and the high rate VX-680 of CS were similar in both periods. signaling pathway Group 3 (multiparous excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, >= 37 weeks, spontaneous labour) accounted for the largest proportion of deliveries, 28.5 and 26.8% in both periods. Group 1 (nulliparous, single, cephalic, >= 37 weeks, spontaneous labour) was the second largest one, while Group 5 (previous caesarean section, single, cephalic, and >= 37 weeks)

was the third but the largest contributor to CS, accounting for 16.6 and 14.9% among all deliveries in both periods. Groups 2 (nulliparous, single, cephalic, >= 37 weeks, induction or CS before labour) and 4 (multiparous excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, >= 37 weeks, induction or CS before labour) were less prevalent, however had higher rates of CS. Only in Group 10 (All single, cephalic, <= 36 weeks, including previous CS), there was a significant decrease of CS rate from 70.5 to 42.6% between XMU-MP-1 periods.\n\nConclusion: Robson’s classification did not identify any significant change in the pattern of CS rates with the audit and feedback process, but showed to be useful for comparing trends among similar obstetric populations.”
“Ankyrin-G and (beta ll-spectrin

colocalize at sites of cell cell contact in columnar epithelial cells and promote lateral membrane assembly. This study identifies two critical inputs from lipids that together provide a rationale for how ankyrin-G and beta ll-spectrin selectively localize to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lateral membranes. We identify aspartate-histidine-histidine-cysteine 5/8 (DHHC5/8) as ankyrin-G palmitoyltransferases required for ankyrin-G lateral membrane localization and for assembly of lateral membranes. We also find that beta ll-spectrin functions as a coincidence detector that requires recognition of both ankyrin-G and phosphoinositide lipids for its lateral membrane localization. DHHC5/8 and beta ll-spectrin colocalize with ankyrin-G in micrometer-scale subdomains within the lateral membrane that are likely sites for palmitoylation of ankyrin-G.

Normal latent inhibition was caused by 20-fold preexposure (four

Normal latent inhibition was caused by 20-fold preexposure (four times daily) of environmental conditional stimulus before training. For modeling of the weak latent inhibition 10-fold preexposure was used. Effects of D2 agonist quinpirole (1 mg/kg) and selective D1 agonist SKF 38393 (1 mg/kg) injected individually and in combination with haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg) were tested. Quinpirole caused a significant potentiation of the normal latent inhibition (20-fold preexposures) but did not affect the weak latent inhibition. Haloperidol reinforced the weak latent inhibition but reduced the normal latent inhibition. The agent SKF 38393 was not able to affect the latent inhibition

independently of the preexposure number. Injected in combination with haloperidol, SKF 38393 prevented the normal latent inhibition from being impaired by haloperidol. These findings suggest

that D1 receptors do not appear to participate in the GSK2126458 modulation of the latent inhibition as an independent substrate, but D1 receptors are essential for the full manifestation of the D2-mediated modulation of the latent inhibition.”
“Objective. – To analyze the functional and urodynamic results of a compressive sub-urethral Quizartinib manufacturer sling with bone anchoring InVance (TM).\n\nMethods. – One hundred and six successive patients were operated with this system between August 2004 and March 2009. Urinary incontinence was classified according to the number of daily protections. All the patients have benefited from a clinical, endoscopic and urodynamic pre and post-operative evaluation. The results were classified in four groups, at three months and at one year, according to whether the patients were dry (A), very improved (B), little improved (C), or with no improvement (D).\n\nResults. – The average age of the patients during the installation of the strip was 67.4 years (4682). At three months, the rate of dry (A) or

very improved patients (B) was of 81.2% (A = 75.5%; B = 5.7%), and at one year: 75.5% (A = 61%; B = 14.5%). At three months, the LDK378 concentration rate of patients little improved (C) or not improved (D) was of 18.8% (C = 16%; D = 2.8%), and at one year: 24.5% (C = 20.3%; D = 4.2%). These results deteriorated according to the initial rank of incontinence II, III, and I. Six patients (5.7%) were explanted because of a prosthetic infection which perished at an average of 9 months (3-18). Infection was linked to operative time (p = 0.02), and patients age. No osteitis nor urethral erosion were noted. There was a significant rise in the pressures of maximum fence at rest and maximum urethral pressures in reserve (p = 0.01). At one year, score ICIQ-UI SF decreased overall by 7.1 points.\n\nConclusion. – The medium-term results of under-urethral supporting with bone anchoring InVance (TM) are very encouraging. This technique presents an acceptable morbidity and a good tolerance.

circinelloides strains, while Rhizopus strains clustered accordin

circinelloides strains, while Rhizopus strains clustered according to the sources of isolation. The phylogenetic

tree based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequence revealed the variation of the ITS region among Mucor strains as well as Rhizopus strains.”
“Experimental osteoarthritis (OA) was induced in the knee joints of rabbits and the trend of changes were compared by radiography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and histopathology. Twenty rabbits were randomly divided into two equal groups based on short (30 days) and long-term (180 days) follow R406 ups. In half of the animals in each group (n = 5) OA was induced by sectioning the cranial cruciate ligament and in the other half, only arthrotomy was performed as a sham operation. Radiography and MRI were carried out on days 0 and 30 in the group of short term studies, and on days 0, 90 and 180 in the other group. Histopathological examinations were performed on day 30 in the short-term group after the animals had been sacrificed and in the other group on day 180. The slope of changes over the course JNK-IN-8 of the study between all 3 methods and the grade of changes, were both highest in histopathology, and then in MRI and radiology respectively. The slope of changes was 0.01 for histopathology, 0.009 for MRI and 0.004 for radiology.

The ratios of slopes, when compare to each other, were as follows: His./MRI = 1.1, His./Rad. = 2.5, MRI/Rad. = 2.2. Comparison of MRI with radiology revealed that radiology would not show signs of OA when the MRI grade is less than a grade of 0.27. Comparing both imaging techniques with histopathology showed that whenever the histopathological grade was below 0.22, radiology would not show signs of OA involvement, while MRI was capable

of showing signs of OA involvement whenever it was more than 0.018 on histopathological grade.”
“Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions.\n\nFindings The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio.

001) None of the polymorphisms studied was associated with breas

001). None of the polymorphisms studied was associated with breast cancer risk. A significant interaction was observed between MnSOD 47T>C and HRT use (p(interaction) = 0.036); the risk of breast cancer associated with long-term vs. short-term HRT use was decreased in women homozygous for the wild-type allele and increased in women with at least one variant allele of the MnSOD 47T>C polymorphism. Our results suggest that MnSOD 47T>C polymorphism in interaction with long-term HRT use may modify the risk of breast cancer.”
“Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is very resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Localized disease can be cured by surgery

but most patients are diagnosed when distant metastases are already present and about 30% of patients relapse after nephrectomy. Until 2 years ago, cytokine-based immunotherapy (interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha) was the only therapeutic option for advanced HDAC inhibitor review RCC patients. Fewer than 20% of patients benefit from this treatment, but some of these may experience very prolonged complete responses and progression-free intervals, suggesting a possibility of cure in a very few cases.\n\nThanks to our expanding knowledge of the biology and pathogenesis of RCC, the treatment of this disease has recently undergone a major advance, through the development of potent angiogenesis click here inhibitors and targeted agents. Bevacizumab, an antibody directed against

vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has shown significant activity in combination with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha). Sunitinib and sorafenib, multikinase inhibitors with proven antiangiogenic activity, have also been approved for the treatment of this LM-1149 tumor. Finally, temsirolimus and everolimus, which belong to the family of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), have shown sonic activity in selected patients. The aim of this paper is

to review clinical trials with these new agents, describing their activity and profiles of toxicity, and to evaluate potential future developmental strategies. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background\n\nDespite the widespread use of antenatal corticosteroids to prevent respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants, there is currently no consensus as to the type of corticosteroid to use; nor the dose, frequency, timing of use or the route of administration.\n\nObjectives\n\nTo assess the effects of different corticosteroid regimens for women at risk of preterm birth.\n\nSearch methods\n\nWe searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (13 February 2013).\n\nSelection criteria\n\nAll identified published and unpublished randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised control trials comparing any two corticosteroids (dexamethasone or betamethasone or any other corticosteroid that can cross the placenta), comparing different dose regimens (including frequency and timing of administration) in women at risk of preterm birth were included.

Results: Differentially expressed miRNAs including miR-99a, m

\n\nResults: Differentially expressed miRNAs including miR-99a, miR-100, miR-125b, miR-192, and miR-429 were detected in pancreatic cancer stem cells. Furthermore, examining both profiles, we obtained 210 miRNAs and 258 stem cell-associated mRNAs that were differentially expressed in the pancreatic cancer stem cells. These miRNAs and mRNAs were further investigated using

cross-correlation analysis, which LY2835219 solubility dmso yielded 6 groups of miRNAs and 3 groups of mRNAs. The number of miRNA clusters and mRNA clusters showed high correlation based on microarray result.\n\nConclusions: Differentially expressed miRNAs in pancreatic cancer stem cells provide insights into possible linkages between clusters of miRNAs and clusters of stem cell-associated mRNAs in cancer stem cells and have broad implications in our understanding of cancer stem cells and cancer stem cell-targeted cancer therapy.”
“The heterosite phase occurring in a pegmatitic rock sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and by Mossbauer spectroscopy.

The orthorhombic unit-cell parameters, expressed in angstrom, were found as a = 9.733 (1), b = 5.837 (1) and c = 4.776 (1). The composition was determined to be (Fe0.54Mn0.43Mg0.04)PO4. Mossbauer spectra recorded at temperatures Tot 65 K and higher consist of two broadened quadrupole Compound Library screening doublets. Their isomer shifts delta are both diagnostic for the ferric state. The dominant doublet (similar to 60% of total area) exhibits an average quadrupole splitting Delta E-Q,E-av of 1.62 mm/s at room temperature, while the weaker broader doublet

has Delta E-Q,E-av = 0.68 mm/s. For temperatures T <= 60 K the spectra are composed of a broad sextet and a central quadrupole doublet. The doublet persists down to the lowest applied temperature of 17K. It is concluded that this doublet is due to an Fe-bearing phase other than heterosite and STAT inhibitor which gives rise to the inner doublet appearing in the spectra recorded at T >= 65 K. The broad sextets, attributable to the heterosite phase, were fitted with model-independent hyperfine-field distributions. However, it was consistently experienced that using the common Lorentzian-shaped elementary sextets composing the distribution, could not adequately reproduce the observed line shapes. Instead, the calculations had to be based on the diagonalization of the complete hyperfine-interaction Hamiltonian. This is due to the unusually strong quadrupole interaction. The as-such calculated hyperfine parameters of the heterosite phase at 17K may be summarized as follows: maximum-probability hyperfine field B-hf,B-m = 473 kOe, isomer shift delta(Fe) = 0.54 mm/s, average quadrupole coupling constant 1/2e(2)qQ = 1.50 mm/s, asymmetry parameter of the EFG eta = 0.80, and polar angles of the hyperfine field with respect to the EFGs principal axes frame Omega = 40 degrees and psi = 90 degrees.

56 mu M and specifically against A549 cells with IC50 of 8 28 mu

56 mu M and specifically against A549 cells with IC50 of 8.28 mu M and B16-F10 cells with IC50 of 6.59 mu M. Above all, the introduction of large substituents such as indolyl groups at 8-position of the guanine scaffold probably achieves higher selectivity for FGFR1 as compared with AZD4547. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In the olfactory system of vertebrates, neurogenesis occurs throughout life. The regenerating activities of the olfactory receptor neurons are connected Crenigacestat to particular glial cells in the olfactory pathway: the olfactory ensheathing cells. A considerable number of studies

are available in literature regarding mammalian olfactory click here ensheathing cells; this is due to their potential role in cell-based therapy for spinal cord injury repair. But very little is known about these cells in non-mammalian vertebrates. In this study we examined the immunocytochemical characteristics of the olfactory ensheathing cells in fish, which provide a good model for the study of glial cells in the olfactory pathway of non-mammalian vertebrates. Paraffin sections from decalcified heads of Poecilia reticulata (microsmatic fish) and Carassius auratus (macrosmatic fish)

were processed to immunocytochemically detect ensheathing cell markers used in research on mammals: GFAP, S100, NCAM, PSA-NCAM, vimentin, p75NTR and galectin-1. GFAP, S100 and NCAM were clearly detected in both fish, though the intracranial tract of the primary olfactory pathway of Carassius appears more S100 stained than the extracranial tract. P75NTR staining is more evident in Poecilia, PSA-NCAM positivity in Carassius. A slight vimentin immunostaining was detected only in Carassius. No galectin-1 staining appeared in the olfactory pathways of either fish. This study shows that some markers for mammalian olfactory ensheathing cells also stain the olfactory pathway in fish. Immunocytochemical staining differs in the two fish under examination, even along the various tracts of the

olfactory pathway in the same species.”
“The therapeutic and toxic effects of drugs are often generated through effects on distinct cell types in the body. Selective delivery of drugs to specific cells or cell MK-8931 supplier lineages would, therefore, have major advantages, in particular, the potential to significantly improve the therapeutic window of an agent. Cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage represent an important target for many therapeutic agents because of their central involvement in a wide range of diseases including inflammation, cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. We have developed a versatile chemistry platform that is designed to enhance the potency and delivery of small-molecule drugs to intracellular molecular targets.

10,912/- (range: Rs 500/- to Rs 50,000/-) with approximately 56

10,912/- (range: Rs. 500/- to Rs. 50,000/-) with approximately 56% of the patients having an income of less than Rs. 5000/month. The expenditure on anti-glaucoma medications ranged from 0.3% in high income group to 123% of their monthly gross income in low income group (P smaller than 0.0001). The total expenditure including travel, stay, MEK inhibitor drugs and loss of wages of patients and accompanying persons ranged from 1.6% in high income group to 137% of the monthly income in low income group (P smaller than 0.0001). Mean time required

for a glaucoma clinic visit was 15.66 h, (range: 6-96 h/month). About 2.7% experienced systemic side-effects and 21.3% had complaints of ocular adverse effects. About 90% of the patients were compliant. 92% were not covered by any insurance plan/government reimbursement for their treatment. Conclusions: Medical therapy Proteasome inhibitor for glaucoma is an economic burden to many patients and should be individualized, according to the socioeconomic status,

availability of drugs and the required distance to travel to reach the specialist clinics.”
“JC virus (JCV) is ubiquitous in the human population. Primary infection normally occurs during childhood and is followed by a lifelong persistent infection. The main mode of transmission remains unknown. Several authors have hypothesized that JCV transmission occurs through the respiratory route, and that respiratory secretions could represent a possible source of viral particles.

The present study intended to evaluate oropharyngeal fluids from patients infected with JCV, in order to ascertain if respiratory secretions could indeed constitute a source of exposure to this polyomavirus. Oropharyngeal washing samples from 25 patients co-infected with JCV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 were evaluated for the presence of JCV DNA. Regardless of the titre of antibodies or the presence of viral urinary excretion, JCV genome was not detected in oropharyngeal samples LXH254 purchase collected from any of the patients infected with JCV included in this study, which may suggest that oropharyngeal fluids are an unlikely source for JCV infection.”
“Establishment of cell polarity-or symmetry breaking-relies on local accumulation of polarity regulators. Although simple positive feedback is sufficient to drive symmetry breaking, it is highly sensitive to stochastic fluctuations typical for living cells. Here, by integrating mathematical modelling with quantitative experimental validations, we show that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae a combination of actin- and guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor-dependent recycling of the central polarity regulator Cdc42 is needed to establish robust cell polarity at a single site during yeast budding.

The association of filaggrin variants with asthma suggests skin b

The association of filaggrin variants with asthma suggests skin barrier dysfunction as a novel, and potentially modifiable, mechanism driving early childhood asthma.”
“This study investigated whether ethanol combined with low doses of morphine produces rewarding effects in rats. Ethanol (0.075-1.2 g/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) alone did not induce place preference. A moderate dose (1 mg/kg, s.c.), but not a low dose (0.1 mg/kg), of morphine induced a significant place preference.

The combination of ethanol (0.075-0.6 g/kg, i.p.) and 0.1 mg/kg of morphine, as well as low doses of morphine (0.03-0.1 mg/kg, subcutaneous [s.c.]) E7438 combined with ethanol (0.3 g/kg, i.p.), induced a significant place preference. The combined effect of ethanol and morphine was significantly attenuated by naloxone (0.3 mg/kg, buy Ulixertinib s.c.), naltrindole (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.), or long-term administration of the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (1.0 mg/kg/day, s.c.). These results suggest that the rewarding effect induced by ethanol and a low dose of morphine is mediated by activation of the central opioidergic and dopaminergic systems through dopamine D1 receptors. (J Nippon Med Sch 2013; 80: 34-41)”
“The present study investigates antibacterial activity of tobacco

extracts from Nicotiana tabacum at different concentrations in different polar solvents. Six different extracts were prepared, using 5 different polar solvents viz., Ethanol, Ethyl acetate, n-Hexane, Acetone, Butanol and water. Four different concentrations (6, 12, 18 and 24 mg of sample disc(-1)) of each extract were subjected for preliminary antibacterial screening against seven pathogenic bacteria by Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion method. The result of in vitro antibacterial screening showed that 6 extracts from Nicotiana tabacum revealed different ranges of antibacterial activities. Ethyl acetate extracted samples

were more effective to control Bacillus cereus and Erwinia carotovora followed by butanol extracted Ferroptosis inhibitor samples against Staphlococcus aureus and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, while no significant inhibitory effects were observed in ethanol and hexane extracts. When tobacco extracts were studied for their antibacterial potential against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, the ethyl acetate extracts showed a good range of inhibitory effects against Bacillus cereus and Erwinia carotovora at highest concentration (24 mg sample disc-1). Hexane, ethanol and aqueous extracts did not show a significant range of inhibitory effect but acetone extracts indicated non significant inhibitory effects against S typhae, Staphlococcus aureus and Erwinia carotovora.

Here we report that

Here we report that IGF-1R inhibitor oxathiazolones inhibit the immunoproteasome beta 5i with up to 4700-fold selectivity over the constitutive proteasome, are cell permeable, and inhibit proteasomes inside cells.”
“Compounds from the nanotechnology industry, such as carbon-based nanomaterials, are strong candidates

to contaminate aquatic environments because their production and disposal have exponentially grown in a few years. Previous evidence shows that fullerene C-60, a carbon nanomaterial, can facilitate the intake of metals or PAHs both in vivo and in vitro, potentially amplifying the deleterious effects of these toxicants in organisms. The present work aimed to investigate the effects of fullerene C-60 in a Danio rerio (zebrafish) hepatocyte cell lineage exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in terms of cell viability, oxidative stress parameters and BaP intracellular accumulation. Additionally, a computational docking was performed to investigate the interaction of the fullerene C-60 molecule with the detoxificatory and antioxidant enzyme pi GST. Fullerene C-60 provoked a significant (p smaller than 0.05) loss in cellular viability when co-exposed with BaP at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mu g/L, and induced an increase (p smaller than 0.05) in BaP accumulation in the

cells after 3 and 4 h of exposure. The levels of reactive oxygen species Birinapant order (ROS) in the cells exposed to BaP were diminished (p smaller than 0.05) by the fullerene addition, and the increase of the GST activity observed in the BaP-only

treated cells was reduced to the basal levels by co-exposure to fullerene. However, despite the potential of the fullerene molecule to inhibit pi GST activity, demonstrated by the computational docking, the nanomaterial did not significantly(p bigger than 0.05) alter the enzyme activity when added to GST purified extracts from the zebrafish hepatocyte cells. These results show that fullerene C-60 can increase the intake of BaP into the cells, decreasing cell viability and impairing the detoxificatory response by phase II enzymes, such as GST, and this latter effect should be occurring at the transcriptional level. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between running economy (RE) and performance MLN2238 Proteases inhibitor in a homogenous group of competitive Kenyan distance runners. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) (68.8 +/- 3.8ml center dot kg(-1)center dot min(-1)) was determined on a motorised treadmill in 32 Kenyan (25.3 +/- 5.0years; IAAF performance score: 993 +/- 77 p) distance runners. Leg anthropometry was assessed and moment arm of the Achilles tendon determined. While Achilles moment arm was associated with better RE (r(2)=0.30, P=0.003) and upper leg length, total leg length and total leg length to body height ratio were correlated with running performance (r=0.42, P=0.025; r=0.40, P=0.030 and r=0.38, P=0.

Both models indicated a general warming of the North Sea by up to

Both models indicated a general warming of the North Sea by up to 0.8 degrees C and a slight freshening by the

2040s. The models suggested that the eastern North Sea would be subjected to more temperature and salinity changes than the western part. In addition, the ecological modules of the models indicated that the warming up of the sea would result in a slightly earlier spring bloom. The one model that also computes the distribution of four different phytoplankton groups suggests an increase in the abundance of dinoflagellates, whereas the PF2341066 abundance of diatoms, flagellates and Phaeocystis sp. remains comparable to current levels, or decrease. Assuming that Dinophysis spp. would experience a similar increase in abundance as the modelled group of dinoflagellates, it is hypothesised that blooms of Dinophysis spp. may occur more frequently in the North Sea by 2040. However, implications for shellfish toxicity remain unclear.”
“Acute kidney injury is a frequent complication affecting many hospitalized patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Acute kidney injury often occurs in conjunction with critical illness, which is a hypermetabolic

state presenting with hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, and increased protein catabolism. In addition to addressing these changes, the clinician should evaluate the important nutrition implications of decreased kidney function. These include vitamins, electrolytes, minerals, trace elements, GW786034 manufacturer and the presence and type of renal replacement therapy. Optimal nutrition management in acute kidney injury includes providing adequate macronutrient support to correct underlying conditions and prevent ongoing loss, supplementing micronutrients and vitamins during renal replacement therapy,

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“This paper reports on a small-scale radiation detector that is sensitive to alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron radiation using scintillators doped with boron nanoparticles utilizing CMOS fabrication techniques. Two types of microscintillators have been fabricated and tested: One relies on sintered glass frit doped with boron nanoparticles, and the other uses quartz with boron diffused into the substrate. Radiation impinging on the scintillation matrix produces varying optical pulses of varying intensities depending on the type of radiation particle. The optical pulses are differentiated by on-chip pulse height spectroscopy and recorded on a microcontroller. The pulse height circuitry has been fabricated with both discrete circuits and designed into a single integrated circuit package. The quartz substrates have shown to be more transparent to the wavelength of the created optical pulses, which results in a higher count rate when compared to the tested glass scintillator.