Appl GS-4997 clinical trial Phys Lett 2012, 100:201606.CrossRef 19. Michel EG: Epitaxial iron silicides: geometry, electronic structure and applications. Appl Surf Sci 1997, 117/118:294.CrossRef 20. Ohtsu N, Oku M, Nomura A, Sugawara T, Shishido T, Wagatsuma K: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies on initial oxidation of iron and manganese mono-silicides. Appl Surf Sci 2008, 254:3288.CrossRef 21. Egert B, Panzner G: Bonding state of silicon segregated to α-iron surfaces and on iron silicide surfaces studied by electron spectroscopy. Phys Rev B 1984, 2091:29. 22. Rührnschopf K, Borgmann D, Wedler G: Growth of Fe on Si (100) at room temperature
and formation of iron silicide. Thin Solid Films 1996, 280:171.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions ZQZ designed the project of the experiments and drafted the manuscript. LMS carried out the XPS measurements. GMS, XYL, and XL carried out the growth of the iron silicide thin films and STM measurements. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Since the classic talk from Richard Feynman, titled ‘There’s plenty of room at the bottom’ , presented on 29 December 1959 at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society (at the California Institute MI-503 datasheet of Technology, USA), introduced
the concept of nanotechnology, this technology has evolved at an outstanding pace
in practically all areas of sciences [1, 2]. To be considered as nanotechnology, nanosized and HAS1 nanostructured systems should present one or more components with at least one dimension ranging from 1 to 100 nm. In recent years, innovation in nanotechnology and nanoscience for medicine (or nanomedicine) has been a major driving force in the creation of new nanocomposites and nanobioconjugates. Essentially, these buy CHIR-99021 materials may bring together the intrinsic functionalities of inorganic nanoparticles and the biointerfaces offered by biomolecules and polymers of natural origin, such as carbohydrates and derivatives, glycoconjugates, proteins, DNA, enzymes and oligopeptides [3–5]. In view of the large number of available alternatives to produce hybrids and conjugates for bioapplications, carbohydrates have been often chosen, due to their biocompatibility, physicochemical and mechanical properties, and relative chemical solubility and stability in aqueous physiological environment [5–8]. Among these carbohydrates, chitosan (poly-β(1 → 4)-2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucose) is one of the most abundant polysaccharides (semi-processed) from natural sources, second only to cellulose [5–8]. Chitosan is a polycationic polymer that has been broadly used in pharmaceuticals, drug carrier and delivery systems, wound dressing biomaterial, antimicrobial films, biomaterials, food packaging and many applications [5–10].