The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics a

The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics and prognostic value of cough in IPF.


Subjects with IPF were identified from an ongoing longitudinal database. Cough and other clinical variables were recorded prospectively. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of cough and predictors of disease progression, defined as 10% decline in FVC, 15% decline in DLCO, lung transplantation or death within 6 months of clinic visit. The relationship of cough with time to death or lung transplantation was analysed using Cox proportional hazards analysis.

Results: Two hundred and forty-two subjects were included. Cough was reported in 84% of subjects. On multivariate analysis, cough was less likely in previous smokers (OR 0.07, 95% CI: 0.01-0.55,

P = 0.01), and more likely in subjects with exertional this website desaturation (OR 2.56, 95% CI: 1.15-5.72, P = 0.02) and lower FVC (OR 0.76, 95% CI: 0.60-0.96, P = 0.02). Cough predicted disease progression (OR 4.97, 95% CI: 1.25-19.80, P = 0.02) independent Z VAD FMK of disease severity, and may predict time to death or lung transplantation (HR 1.78, 95% CI: 0.94-3.35, P = 0.08).

Conclusions: Cough in IPF is more prevalent in never-smokers and patients with more advanced disease. Cough is an independent predictor of disease progression and may predict time to death or lung transplantation.”
“OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the histological changes of tracheal cartilage and epithelium caused by tracheal occlusion at different gestational ages in a fetal rat model.

METHODS: Rat fetuses were divided into two groups: a) External control, composed of non-operated rats, and b) Interventional group, composed of rats operated upon on gestational day 18.5 (term = 22 days), divided into triads: 1) Tracheal occlusion, 2) Internal control and 3) Sham (manipulated but not operated). Morphological

data for body weight, total lung weight and total lung weight/body weight ratio were collected and measured on gestational days 19.5, 20.5 and 21.5. Tracheal samples were histologically processed, and epithelial, chondral and total tracheal thicknesses were measured on each gestational day.

RESULTS: The tracheal occlusion group exhibited an increase in total lung weight/body weight ratio (p<0.001). Histologically, this group had a thicker epithelial thickness (p<0.05) and thinner chondral (p<0.05) and total tracheal thicknesses (p<0.001). These differences were more prominent on gestational days 20.5 and 21.5.

CONCLUSION: Tracheal occlusion changed tracheal morphology, increased epithelial thickness and considerably decreased total tracheal thickness. These changes in the tracheal wall could explain the development of tracheomegaly, recently reported in some human fetuses subjected to tracheal occlusion.”
“Grape seed extract (GSE) was encapsulated in biocompatible poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) using the solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids (SEDS) technique.

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