This method introduced attenuation, collimation and scatter into the modeling of dynamic SPECT projections. Both approaches were GSK3235025 used to evaluate the accuracy of estimating myocardial wash-in parameters for rotation speeds providing 180 degrees of projection data
every 27 and 54 s. Dynamic cardiac SPECT was also performed in a human subject at rest using a hybrid SPECT/CT scanner. Dynamic measurements of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin in the myocardium were obtained using an infusion time of 2 min. Blood input, myocardium tissue and liver TACs were estimated using the same spatiotemporal splines. The spatiotemporal maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (4D ML-EM) reconstructions gave more accurate reconstructions than did standard frame-by-frame static 3D ML-EM reconstructions. The SPECT/P results showed that 4D ML-EM reconstruction gave
higher and more accurate estimates of K-1 than AC220 did 3D ML-EM, yielding anywhere from a 44% underestimation to 24% overestimation for the three patients. The SPECT/D results showed that 4D ML-EM reconstruction gave an overestimation of 28% and 3D ML-EM gave an underestimation of 1% for K-1. For the patient study the 4D ML-EM reconstruction provided continuous images as a function of time of the concentration in both ventricular cavities and myocardium during the 2 min infusion. It is demonstrated that a 2 min infusion with a two-headed SPECT system rotating 180 degrees every FK866 54 s can produce measurements of blood pool and myocardial TACs, though the SPECT simulation studies showed that one must sample at least every 30 s to capture a 1 min infusion input function.”
“Research points to a right hemisphere bias for processing social stimuli. Hemispheric specialization for attention shifts cued by social stimuli, however, has been rarely studied. We examined the capacity of each
hemisphere to orient attention in response to social and nonsocial cues using a lateralized spatial cueing paradigm. We compared the up/down orienting effects of eye gaze cues, arrow cues, and peripheral cues (change in luminance). Results revealed similar cueing effects in each visual field for nonsocial cues, but asymmetric effects for social cues. At both short (150 ms) and long (950 ms) cue-target intervals, gaze cueing was significant in the LVF, but not in the RVF. Thus, there is a right hemisphere bias for attentional orienting cued by social stimuli, but not for attentional orienting cued by nonsocial stimuli. This supports a theory of a separate neural system for socially cued orienting of attention, as well as a theory of separate parallel and simultaneous neural systems for attention in the two cerebral hemispheres. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
With protected research time and clear developmental milestones for each year of training, the RTP allows research track residents to meet both clinical and research training goals while maintaining a healthy work-life
balance. In coordination with existing postdoctoral research fellowship programs, research track residents can effectively jump-start fellowship training with advanced course work and consistent, continuous mentorship bridging residency and fellowship years. A key element of the program is its provision of core training in research literacy and extensive Selleckchem Stem Cell Compound Library research opportunities for all residents, stimulating research interest across the whole residency program. Supported by the National Institutes of Health and a private foundation, this RTP capitalizes on a unique academic-private partnership to address many of the challenges facing physician-scientists. By integrating clinical and research exposures and offering protected research time, careful mentoring, and financial resources, the program aims to further the development of those most poised to establish careers in translational research.”
Cortical venous injury can occur during any GW4869 intracranial procedure with potentially severe consequences. We describe a simple technique that allowed for successful repair of a large cortical draining vein.\n\nCase description: A 43-year-old, right-handed woman presented with 6 months of headaches and progressive difficulty with right-sided hemiparesis. She had significant loss of hand coordination and writing ability. Computed tomography and MR imaging revealed a parasagittal meningioma in the left, posterior frontal region.
The patient underwent craniotomy with resection of the lesion.\n\nConclusion: When a cortical check details vein is injured, collateral drainage pathways may prevent the development of a clinical problem. Because of the unpredictability of these collateral channels, venous reconstruction may be feasible and even straightforward in some cases. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In 2006, the Hospital Infection Society was funded by the respective health services in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland to conduct a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Here, we report the prevalence of pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infection other than pneumonia (LRTIOP) in these four countries. The prevalence of all HCAIs was 7.59% (5743 out of 75 694). Nine hundred (15.7%) of these infections were pneumonia, and 402 (7.0%) were LRTIOP. The prevalence of both infections was higher for males than for females, and increased threefold from those aged <35 to those aged >85 years (P < 0.001). At the time of the survey or in the preceding seven days, 23.7% and 18.2% of patients with pneumonia and LRTIOP, respectively, were mechanically ventilated compared to 5.2% of patients in the whole study population.
, New Brunswick, NJ, USA) for the remainder of the study. At 1 year of age. small mesenteric arteries were dissected and mounted on a wire myograph and responses to phenylephrine,
check details endothelin, acetylcholine, leptin and sodium nitroprusside assessed. Vasoconstriction to endothelin was significantly enhanced in all groups compared with controls (-log effective concentration equal to 50% of the maximal response (pEC(50)); P<0.001). Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to acetylcholine was significantly blunted in all groups compared with controls (% maximum response; P<0.01), while dilatation to leptin and sodium nitroprusside was similar in all groups. These data demonstrate that both maternal undernutrition and postnatal high fat lead to vascular alterations and suggest that maternal undernutrition alone is at least as detrimental to offspring endothelial function as a long-term exposure
to a high-fat diet in the offspring.”
“Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions BTSA1 ic50 include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise.
Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum Selonsertib molecular weight and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.”
“Kidney cancer accounts for approximately 2% of all cancers worldwide, with renal cell carcinoma being the most common form and this report is focused on renal cell carcinoma. Globally, the incidence and mortality rates are increasing by 2-3% per decade. Kidney cancer is less common in Asia compared with the West. Cigarette smoking, obesity, acquired cystic kidney disease and inherited susceptibility are known risk factors for kidney cancer.
“Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is an important mastitis causing pathogen in dairy cows worldwide. The aim of this controlled and randomized study was to analyze the effects of an antibiotic treatment on chronic subclinical S. aureus mastitis during lactation. The study was PI3K inhibitor conducted between July 2011 and December 2011 in Northern Germany including 134 udder quarters (i. e. 103 dairy cows) infected with S. aureus. The animals were randomly divided into two groups (control and treatment group). Quarter foremilk duplicate samples were taken on days 0, 7, 32 and 39 from each infected udder quarter for
microbiological analysis and somatic cell count determination.\n\nTreatment consisted of cephalexin (200 mg intramammarily 5 times every 12 h) plus marbofloxacine (2 mg/kg BM subcutaneously 3 times every 24 h). “Pathogen elimination” was assessed as the status, when no S. aureus was isolated from the quarter samples of days 32 and 39. “Cure” was defined
as the status, when in addition to pathogen elimination the somatic cell count of the quarter in both milk samples was below 100 000/ml. Animals of the treatment group showed a pathogen elimination rate of 35.9% and a cure rate of 21.9%. The rates for the control group were 21.4% and 8.6%, resp. The differences between groups were statistically significant. These results indicate that pathogen elimination and cure rates of chronic subclinical S. aureus mastitis are low after an intramammary cephalexin and subcutaneous marbofloxacine https://www.selleckchem.com/ALK.html treatment, but still significantly better than without any antibiotic treatment.”
“Increased dietary ratios of u6/u3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD), but epidemiologic data are limited. We investigated whether variants of genes that control polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism (CYP4F3, FADS1, and FADS2), along with the dietary ratio of
u6/u3, confers susceptibility to CD. Based on data from Pfizer Licensed Compound Library nmr 182 children newly diagnosed with CD and 250 controls, we found that children who consumed a higher dietary ratio of u6/u3 were susceptible for CD if they were also carriers of specific variants of CYP4F3 and FADS2 genes. Our findings implicate diet-gene interactions in the pathogenesis of CD.”
“One of the challenges presented by Candida infections is that many of the isolates encountered in the clinic produce biofilms, which can decrease these pathogens’ susceptibilities to standard-of-care antibiotic therapies. Inhibitors of fungal biofilm formation offer a potential solution to counteracting some of the problems associated with Candida infections. A screening campaign utilizing samples from our fungal extract library revealed that a Bionectria ochroleuca isolate cultured on Cheerios breakfast cereal produced metabolites that blocked the in vitro formation of Candida albicans biofilms.
were scored according to a four-point scale.\n\nResult: According to the main outcome measured (identification of a 50% difference in the intubation conditions), there were no differences regarding the number of attempts and the overall intubation conditions among the groups (P = 1.00).\n\nConclusion: Both combinations of premedications have no differences regarding the quality of intubation, which could be of clinical interest. Besides midazolam, propofol could be a valid LY2090314 alternative as hypnotic for premedication for endotracheal intubation in neonates. Journal of Perinatology (2011) 31, 356-360; doi:10.1038/jp.2010.135; published online 20 January 2011″
“Isomaltulose is a structural isomer of sucrose commercially used in food industries. In this work, recombinant Escherichia coli producing sucrose isomerase (SIase) was used to convert sucrose into isomaltulose. To develop an economical industrial medium, untreated cane molasses (10.63 g l(-1)), yeast extract (25.93 g l(-1)), and corn steep liquor (10.45 g l(-1)) were used as main culture compositions for SIase production. The relatively high SIase activity (14.50 +/- A 0.11 U mg DCW-1) was obtained by the recombinant cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on SIase production by engineered E. coli
using untreated cane molasses. The recombinant Selleckchem Blebbistatin E. coli cells expressing the SIase gene were immobilized in calcium alginate gel in order to improve the efficiency of recycling. The immobilization was most
effective with 2 % (w/v) sodium alginate and 3 % (w/v) calcium chloride. The optimal initial biomass for immobilization was 20 % (w/v, wet wt.), with a hardening time of 8 h for cell immobilization. The immobilized E. coli cells exhibited good stability for 30 batches with the productivity of 0.45 g isomaltulose g pellet(-1) h(-1). A continuous isomaltulose formation process using a column reactor remained stable for 40 days with 83 +/- A 2 % isomaltulose yield, which would be beneficial for economical production of isomaltulose.”
“Holt-Oram (HO) is a syndrome characterized by congenital cardiovascular see more malformations, specifically atrial and ventricular septal defects, and skeletal abnormalities of the upper limbs bones. Associations of HO cardiac disorders with other congenital cardiac malformations, specifically persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) are rarely reported and its real incidence is unknown. We present a case of this unusual combination in a patient undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device implant. Methods and Results. A 63-year-old male with HO and a history of repaired atrial septal defect was presented for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) upgrade to CRT. The old implant was located in the right prepectoral area.
48 +/- 8 mu L, P < 0.01). These parameters were ameliorated by HR reduction.
Neither myocardial fibrosis nor hypertrophy were detected in db/db, whereas titin N2B expression was increased and phosphorylation of phospholamban was reduced both being prevented by HR reduction in db/db-Iva.\n\nConclusion In db/db, a model of HFPEF, selective HR reduction by I-f-inhibition improved vascular stiffness, LV contractility, and diastolic function. Therefore, I-f-inhibition might be a therapeutic concept for HFPEF, if confirmed in humans.”
“Effects of synthesized glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (DEX, dose = 1.0 Bcl-2 inhibitor mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days) on the expressions of beta(2)-adrenoceptor (AR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were studied in fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus (EDL)) and slow-twitch fiber-rich (soleus(SOL)) muscles of rats. DEX decreased the expression of beta(2)-AR mRNA in SQL muscle without changing that in EDL muscle. The expression BMS-754807 of beta(2)-AR protein in EDL and SQL muscles was not affected by DEX. DEX-induced decreased action of the expression of GR mRNA was much greater in SQL muscle than in
EDL muscle. However, there were no differences in the expression of GR protein in EDL and SQL muscles. DEX also decreased mRNA expression of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB, transcription factor of beta(2)-AR mRNA) in SQL muscle, whereas increased that in EDL muscle. Further, DEX tended to increase mRNA expressions of post-transcription factors of beta(2)-AR mRNA in EDL muscle without changing those in SOL muscle.
These results demonstrated that the expressions of beta(2)-AR and GR are regulated at mRNA levels but not protein levels by DEX. Further, these results also suggest that DEX-induced decrease Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor in the expression of beta(2)-AR mRNA in slow-twitch fiber-rich SOL muscle is associated with the transcriptional regulations.”
“Hemorrhage represents a set of causes that focuses on women during the pregnancy and puerperal period, and that, with improper attention, results in death. The authors aimed to analyze maternal deaths related to hemorrhage that occurred in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The data were obtained from the Mortality Information System and Live Births Information System from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. This was a descriptive study, in which 491 maternal deaths that occurred in the period 1997-2010 were analyzed. Of these, 61 were related to hemorrhage, corresponding to 12.42%; postpartum hemorrhage was the most prevalent cause, with 26 deaths, followed by placental abruption with 15, representing 67.21% of the cases. The maternal mortality from hemorrhage is a public health problem in the state of Santa Catarina, due to its high prevalence and the fact that its underlying causes are preventable.”
“A model of time-delay recurrently coupled spatially segregated neural assemblies is here proposed.
coli isolates from UTI patients (n = 102), community-dwelling humans (n = 109), fresh Danish (n = 197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n = 86), broiler chickens (n = 138), fresh Danish (n = 177) and imported pork (n = 10), and pigs (n = 145) in the study. All isolates were investigated for the presence of eight ExPEC related genes (kpsM II, papA, papC, iutA, sfaS, focG, afa, hlyD) using PCR. To GSK923295 investigate any similarities between isolates from the different origins, we performed a cluster analysis including antimicrobial resistance data previously published. We detected seven of the eight
ExPEC related genes in isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs. Our findings suggest that broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs could be the source of strains with these ExPEC related virulence genes in community-dwelling humans and UT! patients. Especially detection of ExPEC related virulence genes in isolates belonging to phylogroups B2 and D is very concerning and may have a significant medical impact. The cluster analysis of virulence gene and antimicrobial resistance profiles showed strong similarities between UTI P5091 price patient, community-dwelling human isolates, meat, and production animal isolates. Thus, these strains from meat
and production animals may pose a zoonotic risk. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary
Medicine (FDA/CVM) cited concern regarding failure of heartworm prophylaxis. The positive and negative predictive value of the heartworm antigen test is an estimate of the probability of adult heartworm infection.\n\nHypothesis/Objectives: Assess the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of heartworm antigen tests. Explore the role of heartworm test accuracy and treatment with immiticide to generate reports of suspected failure of heartworm prophylaxis.\n\nMethods: Literature searches for published information Vadimezan supplier on the accuracy of heartworm antigen tests and efficacy of immiticide for treatment of the adult heartworm.\n\nResults: Weighted averages for heartworm antigen test sensitivity and specificity were 78.2 and 97.3%, respectively. Efficacy of immiticide by 2-injection or alternate dose protocols were 88.3 and 89.1%, respectively. Depending on prevalence, the positive predictive value of the heartworm antigen test ranged from 15 to 54% and negative predictive value from 99 to 99.9%. For a hospital testing 1,000 dogs per year, false-positive test results may vary from 24 to 27 dogs. If these dogs were on heartworm preventive, they may undergo treatment and be classified as prophylaxis failures. Ten percent of dogs who were treated and continued or placed on prophylaxis at the time of treatment may have adult heart-worms when tested 1 year later and be presumed to represent failure of prophylaxis.
The model predicts that the NS3 helicase actively unwinds duplex by reducing more than 50% the free energy that stabilizes base pairing/stacking. The unwinding activity slows the movement of the helicase in a sequencedependent manner, lowering the average unwinding efficiency to less than
1 bp per ATP cycle. When bound with ATP, the NS3 helicase can display significant translocational diffusion. This increases displacement fluctuations of the helicase, decreases the average unwinding efficiency, and enhances the sequence dependence. BI 6727 Also, interactions between the helicase and the duplex stabilize the helicase at the junction, facilitating the helicase’s unwinding activity while preventing it from dissociating. In the presence of translocational diffusion during active unwinding, the dissociation selleck chemicals llc rate of the helicase also exhibits sequence dependence. Based on unwinding velocity fluctuations measured from single-molecule experiments, we estimate the diffusion rate to be on the order of 10 s(-1). The generic features of coupling single-stranded nucleic acid translocation with duplex unwinding presented in this work may apply generally to a class of helicases. (c) 2010
Elsevier Ltd: All rights reserved.”
“Neurovascular coupling is a process through which neuronal activity leads to local increases in blood flow in the central nervous system. In brain slices, 100% O(2) has been shown to alter neurovascular coupling, suppressing activity-dependent vasodilation. However, in vivo,
hyperoxia reportedly has no effect on blood flow. Resolving these conflicting findings is important, given that hyperoxia is often used in the clinic in the treatment of both adults and neonates, and a reduction in neurovascular coupling Stem Cell Compound Library screening could deprive active neurons of adequate nutrients. Here we address this issue by examining neurovascular coupling in both ex vivo and in vivo rat retina preparations. In the ex vivo retina, 100% O(2) reduced light-evoked arteriole vasodilations by 3.9-fold and increased vasoconstrictions by 2.6-fold. In vivo, however, hyperoxia had no effect on light-evoked arteriole dilations or blood velocity. Oxygen electrode measurements showed that 100% O(2) raised pO(2) in the ex vivo retina from 34 to 548 mm Hg, whereas hyperoxia has been reported to increase retinal pO(2) in vivo to only similar to 53 mm Hg [Yu DY, Cringle SJ, Alder VA, Su EN (1994) Am J Physiol 267:H2498-H2507]. Replicating the hyperoxic in vivo pO(2) of 53 mm Hg in the ex vivo retina did not alter vasomotor responses, indicating that although O(2) can modulate neurovascular coupling when raised sufficiently high, the hyperoxia-induced rise in retinal pO(2) in vivo is not sufficient to produce a modulatory effect. Our findings demonstrate that hyperoxia does not alter neurovascular coupling in vivo, ensuring that active neurons receive an adequate supply of nutrients.
(C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Recently, studies on dendritic cell (DC) vaccine have focused on the development of more effective DC vaccine regimen, such as the application of multiple tumor-associated antigen-targeted DC vaccine. This approach could be used to enhance efficacy of DC-based vaccine against tumors and infectious diseases. In this study, we analyzed whether DC from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma can
be infected with the a-fetoprotein (AFP) gene and/or HBsAg gene (hepatocellular carcinoma-related antigen). Further, it was examined whether vaccination using these genetically engineered DC can induce stronger therapeutic antitumor immunity. Results revealed
that DC infected AG-014699 concentration with AdAFP (adenovirus AFP)/HBsAg can express AFP and HBsAg by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot techniques. Compared with those before transfection, the expressions of membrane molecules increased dramatically. Specific T cells generated by DCs infected with AdAFP/HBsAg specifically recognized human leukocyte antigen-matched HepG2.2.15 cell lines. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes against HepG2.2.15 with DCs expressing AFP was significantly augmented by coinfection with the HBsAg gene. Administration with such vaccine also significantly increased the Ricolinostat production of interleukin-12p70 and interferon-gamma. Most importantly, in vivo results suggested that inhibitors of tumor growth were most significant in severe combined immunodeficiency mice model, which was treated with induced cytotoxic T lymphocyte by the AFP/HBsAg-DC vaccine. These results indicate that a vaccination therapy using DCs coinfected with the two tumor-associated antigen genes is an effective strategy for immunotherapy in the activation of DCs, CD4(+) T cells, and
CD8(+) T cells, and may be useful in the clinical application of cancer vaccine therapy. (c) 2010 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A new norditerpene alkaloid, 10-hydroxy-8-O-methyltalatizamine (1), was isolated from the whole plant of Aconitum anthora L. besides the known isotalatizidine (2) and hetisinone Salubrinal (3). The structures were determined by means of HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC experiments, resulting in complete (1)H and (13)C chemical shift assignments for 1-3, and revision of some earlier (13)C-NMR data. The effects of the isolated compounds, together with twenty-one other Aconitum alkaloids with different skeletal types and substitution patterns, on hERG channels were studied by the whole-cell patch clamp technique, using the QPatch-16 automated patch clamp system.
Tablets containing 30% metoprolol and 70% ethylcellulose (EC 4 mPa s) showed an incomplete drug release within 24 h (<50%). Increasing production temperatures resulted in a lower drug release rate. Substituting part of the EC fraction by HPMC (HPMC/EC-ratio: 20/50 and 35/35) resulted in faster and constant drug release rates. Formulations containing 50% HPMC had a complete and first-order drug release
profile with drug release controlled via the combination of diffusion and swelling/erosion. Faster drug release rates were observed for higher viscosity grades of EC (Mw > 20 mPa s) and HPMC (4000 and 10,000 mPa s). Tablet porosity was low selleck (<4%). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction studies (X-RD) showed that solid dispersions were formed during processing. Using thermogravimetrical analysis (TGA) and gel-permeation chromatography selleck kinase inhibitor no degradation of drug and matrix polymer was observed. The surface morphology was investigated with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing an influence of the process temperature. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the drug is distributed in the entire
matrix, however, some drug clusters were identified. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Spontaneous deamination of cytosine to uracil in DNA is a ubiquitous source of C -> T mutations, but occurs with a half life of similar to 50 000 years. In contrast, cytosine within sunlight induced cyclobutane dipyrimidine dimers (CPD’s), deaminate
within hours to days. Methylation of C increases the frequency of CPD formation at PyCG sites which correlate with C -> T mutation hotspots in skin cancers. MeCP2 binds to (m)CG sites and acts as a transcriptional regulator and chromatin modifier affecting thousands of genes, but its effect on CPD formation and deamination is unknown. We report that the methyl CpG binding domain of MeCP2 (MBD) greatly enhances C=(m)C CPD formation at a TC(m)CG site in duplex DNA and binds with equal or better affinity to the CPD-containing duplex compared 3-deazaneplanocin A Epigenetics inhibitor with the undamaged duplex. In comparison, MBD does not enhance T=(m)C CPD formation at a TT(m)CG site, but instead increases CPD formation at the adjacent TT site. MBD was also found to completely suppress deamination of the T=(m)CG CPD, suggesting that MeCP2 may have the capability to both suppress UV mutagenesis at Py(m)CpG sites as well as enhance it.”
“Background: Excessive airway mucus secretion is a remarkable trait of asthma. Mucus overproduction mainly resulted from an increase in goblet cell numbers, which causes considerable damage to health. However, effective therapeutic treatments are still lacking for mucus hypersecretion. Human calcium-activated chloride channel 1 (hCLCA1) has been identified to be predominantly responsible for mucus hypersecretion.