The supramolecular displacement system is composed of 2-(5-bromo-

The supramolecular displacement system is composed of 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)amino]phenol (5-Br-PAPS), which binds Zn2+ with a change in colour and binds Mn2+ without changing colour, ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N, N, N’, N’-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and Zn2+ at neutral pH. The sensing system exhibits the colour of 5-Br-PAPS itself since EGTA binds Zn2+ more strongly than 5-Br-PAPS does. However, upon presentation of Mn2+, Zn2+ is displaced from EGTA to bind 5-Br-PAPS to produce

a pronounced colour change from yellow to purple. The absorbance decreases at 449nm and increases at 552nm, both linearly to Mn2+ concentration at low micromolar levels. This should be very advantageous since no suitable colorimetric reagent is available for the direct AZD1208 mouse declination of Mn2+ at physiological pH.”
“Purpose: To evaluate whether decreased hamstring autograft APR-246 clinical trial size and decreased patient age are predictors of early graft revision. Methods: Of 338 consecutive patients undergoing primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with hamstring autograft, 256 (75.7%) were evaluated. Graft size and patient age, gender, and body mass index at the time of ACL reconstruction were recorded, along with whether subsequent ACL revision was performed. Results: The 256 patients comprised 136 male and 120 female patients and ranged in

age from 11 to 52 years (mean, 25.0 years). The mean follow-up was 14 months (range, 6 to

47 months). Revision ACL reconstruction was performed in 18 of 256 patients (7.0%) at a mean of 12 months after surgery (range, 3 to 31 months). Revision was performed in 1 of 58 patients (1.7%) with grafts greater than 8 mm in diameter, 9 of 139 patients (6.5%) with 7.5- or 8-mm-diameter grafts, and 8 of 59 patients (13.6%) with grafts 7 mm or less in diameter (P = .027). There was 1 revision performed in the 137 patients aged 20 years or older (0.7%), but 17 revisions were performed in the 119 patients aged under 20 years (14.3%) (P < .0001). Most revisions (16 of 18) were noted to occur in patients aged under 20 years with grafts 8 mm in diameter or less, and the revision rate in this population was 16.4% (16 of 97 patients). Age less than 20 years at reconstruction (odds ratio [OR], 18.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.43 to 147.06; P = .005), decreased graft size (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.00 to 4.85; P = .05), and increased follow-up time (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.12) were associated with increased risk of revision. Conclusions: Decreased hamstring autograft size and decreased patient age are predictors of early graft revision. Use of hamstring autografts 8 mm in diameter or less in patients aged under 20 years is associated with higher revision rates. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study.

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