“Background: We here describe the pharmacological characteristic, in vivo efficacy, and in vitro mechanisms of a polymer-free leflunomide eluting stent in comparison to its
rapamycin-coated equivalent.\n\nMethods: Stents were coated with 40 mM solutions of leflunomide (L) or rapamycin (R) or were left uncoated (BM). Neointima formation was assessed 6 weeks after implantation into Sprague Dawley rats by optical coherence tomographies (OCT) and histopathology. In vitro proliferation assays were performed using isolated endothelial and smooth-muscle-cells from Sprague Dawley rats HM781-36B mouse to investigate the cell-specific pharmacokinetic effect of leflunomide and rapamycin.\n\nResults: HPLC-based drug release kinetics revealed a similar profile with 90% of the drug being released after 12.1 +/- 0.2 (L) and 13.0 +/- 0.2 days (R). After 6 weeks, OCTs showed that in-stent luminal obliteration was less for the coated stents (L:12.0 +/- 9.4%, R:13.3 +/- 13.1%) when compared to identical bare metal stents (BM:26.4 +/- 4.7%; p <= 0.046). Histology with computer-assisted morphometry was performed and demonstrated reduced in-stent I/M thickness ratios (L:2.5 +/- 1.2, R:3.7 +/- Selonsertib research buy 3.3, BM:6.7 +/- 2.3, p <= 0.049 for L and R vs. BM) and neointimal areas (L:0.6 +/- 0.3, R:0.7 +/- 0.2, BM:1.3 +/- 0.4, p <= 0.039 for L and R vs. BM) with stent coating. No differences were found for injury and inflammation GSK3235025 cell line scores (L and R vs.
BM; p=NS). In vitro SMC proliferation was dose-dependently and similarly inhibited by L and R at 1-100 nM (p = NS L vs.
R). Interestingly, human EC proliferation at 10-100 nM was significantly inhibited only by R (p < 0.001), but not by L (p=NS).\n\nConclusions: The diminished inhibition of EC proliferation may improve arterial healing and contribute to the safety profile of the leflunomide stent. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Ac-TMP-2, an immunodominant hookworm antigen encoding a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) was cloned by immunoscreening an Ancylostoma caninum larval cDNA library with sera pooled from dogs immunized with irradiated A. caninum third stage larvae (ir-L3). The open reading frame of Ac-tmp-2 cDNA encoded a 244 amino acids (predicted molecular weight of 27.7 kDa), which shared a common N-terminus with other vertebrate and invertebrate TIMPs. including Ac-TMP-1, the most abundant adult hookworm secreted protein. However Ac-TMP-2 also contains an unusual multicopy (ten) repeat of the amino acid sequence, KTVEENDE. By immunoblotting, Ac-TMP-2 was detected only in adult hook-worms and their excretory secretory products although the corresponding mRNA was also detected in U. Immunolocalization with specific antiserum showed that native Ac-TMP-2 was located in adult worm’s esophagus and cephalic glands. Recombinant Ac-TMP-2 expressed in bacteria was highly immunogenic and recognized by ir-L3 immunized dog immune sera.