In the school context, only classmates�� modeling of smoking positively predicted selleck chemicals llc adolescent smoking, while none of the three social bond variables either moderated the modeling effect or had main effects on youth smoking. Exosystem model The addition of the set of neighborhood variables did not make a significant contribution to the model (Table 3, exosystem). Nevertheless, neighbors�� modeling of smoking was positively associated with the youth smoking trajectories. None of the neighborhood social bond variables predicted smoking or moderated the effect of neighbors�� smoking. With the addition of the neighborhood variables, all the significant relationships between adolescent smoking and the family, peer, and school context variables remained unchanged, although some significance levels were attenuated.
The interaction between social regulation and smoking modeling in the school context, however, became significant, such that the modeling effect was decreased when social regulation was greater rather than lower. The isolated nature of this change suggests the possibility that it was due to chance. Mesosystem models The cross-conte
Smokers hold a variety of beliefs, called expectancies, about the consequences of smoking including affect management (e.g., reducing negative affect and boredom and enhancing positive affect), weight management, and health effects. Reviews of research on smoking expectancies suggest that they play a significant role in smoking initiation, maintenance, and relapse (see Brandon, Juliano, & Copeland, 1999; Kassel, Stroud, & Paronis, 2003).
Smoking expectancies are formed in childhood prior to personal experience with smoking (Chassin, Presson, Sherman, & Edwards, 1991; Copeland Cilengitide et al., 2007) and predict smoking initiation or increases in smoking in adolescents and young adults (Cohen, McCarthy, Brown, & Myers, 2002; Wahl, Turner, Mermelstein, & Flay, 2005). Further, smoking expectancies differ by current smoking status (Brandon & Baker, 1991; Jeffries et al., 2004; Mullennix, Kilbey, Fisicaro, Farnworth, & Torrento, 2003), are associated with motivation to quit smoking (Pulvers et al., 2004), predict smoking cessation attempts (Rose, Chassin, Presson, & Sherman, 1996), and predict continued cessation and lapse or relapse after a quit attempt (Copeland, Brandon, & Quinn, 1995; Gwaltney, Shiffman, Balabanis, & Paty, 2005; Rose et al., 1996; Shadel & Mermelstein, 1993; Wetter et al., 1994). While expectancies are associated with success at smoking cessation, little is known about the ways that smoking expectancies may change over time, concomitant with changes in smoking status.