The parents or legal guardians of participating children (aged <1

The parents or legal guardians of participating children (aged <16 years) gave their written informed consent prior to the collection of stool samples. At the end of the study, free treatment with albendazole (400 mg) was offered to selleck chemicals Ponatinib all study participants, and individuals infected with Schistosoma haematobium and/or S. mansoni were treated with praziquantel (40 mg/kg of body weight) according to the national treatment guidelines of C?te d’Ivoire. Field and laboratory procedures. The purpose and procedures of the study were explained to all participants. After written informed consent was obtained, stool collection containers were distributed, and participants were invited to provide a lime-sized sample of their own morning stool the following day. Stool samples were collected between 08:00 and 10:00 a.

m. and transferred to a laboratory in Taabo Cit��, 28 km east of L��l��bl��. All stool samples were examined with standard methods (Kato-Katz, Baermann, and Koga agar plate) (14, 18, 22) for soil-transmitted helminths, including Strongyloides stercoralis, and for S. mansoni infections. Sufficiently large stool samples were preserved in 5% formaldehyde and subjected to the Flotac-400 dual technique and the FECT to (i) diagnose helminth infections for prevalence assessment in the frame of the cross-sectional epidemiologic baseline survey for the Taabo HDSS and (ii) diagnose protozoon infections for the validation of the Flotac-400 dual technique for diagnosis of human intestinal protozoon infections. The latter objective is the primary focus of the work presented here.

First, about half of the preserved stool samples were utilized for preliminary investigations to standardize the Flotac-400 preparation protocol for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa. Second, the remaining stool samples were analyzed by Flotac-400 and FECT, adhering to the standard protocols described below. The diagnostic accuracy of both techniques was assessed. Stool preparation procedures for intestinal protozoon diagnosis using Flotac-400 and FECT were as follows. A portion of 2 to 3 g of each sample was placed into a tube containing 10 ml of 5% formaldehyde. The stool material was stirred with a wooden spatula, and the tube was vigorously shaken in order to achieve a homogenized suspension of fecal material.

Tubes were labeled with unique identifiers, and the set of formaldehyde-preserved stool samples was forwarded to the Regional Center for Monitoring Parasites (CREMOPAR) in Eboli, Italy. After a preservation time of 10 to 12 weeks at room temperature, the stool samples Cilengitide were prepared and examined under a light microscope (Olympus CX21LED; Volketswil, Switzerland) by an experienced laboratory technician, adhering to standard protocols for FECT and the Flotac-400 dual technique. Each sample was resuspended by shaking and strained through a fine-mesh (250-��m) wire sieve.

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