Given the separate and combined health effects of smoking and obe

Given the separate and combined health effects of smoking and obesity, these findings have kinase assay several implications. First, these data document that obese treatment-seeking smokers are concerned about the weight gain that commonly accompanies efforts to quit smoking. Indeed obese smoker are more concerned than are their normal weight or overweight peers, and endorse feeling unable to manage weight without cigarettes. Thus, treatment approaches designed to address concerns about weight gain following smoking cessation (Levine, Marcus, & Perkins, 2003a; Levine, et al., 2010; Perkins, et al., 2001) may be a useful adjunct to cessation interventions among individuals of all weight categories. Second, the present findings are consistent with previous data on smoking and obesity.

For example, smoking may help to control a tendency toward overeating or binge eating as smokers with a history of binge eating report greater weight gain following cessation than those without a history of binge eating (White, Masheb, & Grilo, 2010) and were less successful in cessation treatment (White, Peters, & Toll, 2010). It also has been postulated that the rewarding value of food, which differs in obese individuals, relates to smoking behavior (Volkow, Wang, & Baler, 2011). A tendency to overeat after quitting or an increased experience of food as rewarding after smoking cessation suggests that obese smokers�� heightened concerns about weight gain postcessation may be justified. Another implication of the current data is that gender remains important in the development of intervention approaches for weight and smoking.

Across all weight categories, women endorsed stronger concerns about smoking-related weight gain. Thus, women may be more likely to benefit from strategies to address postcessation weight gain concerns than men. However, although weight concerns may be relevant to smokers of all pretreatment weight categories, and despite the fact that women endorsed stronger concern than did Batimastat men, among quitline users, depressive symptoms, which have been associated with cessation-related weight gain concerns (Levine, Marcus & Perkins, 2003b), were not associated with weight status or gender. There are several limitations to the current report. First, data were collected via telephone survey. Thus, the measure of depressive symptoms was brief and the data presented represent responses to screening questions rather than validated depressive symptom questionnaires. Second, weight and height were assessed solely by self-report. Although weight may be underreported by telephone (Gorber, Tremblay, Moher & Gorber, 2007), data suggest a reasonable correlation between self-report and clinic measured weight (Jeffery, 1996).

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