The field dose of each fungicide differed according to manufactur

The field dose of each fungicide differed according to manufacturer instructions and was 125 g ha−1 (1250 mg L−1) and 250 g ha−1 (1500 mg L−1) of propiconazole and tebuconazole, respectively. Fungicide spraying was repeated after 14 days to IDH inhibitor strengthen the effect of azoles on Fusarium isolates. In the positive control group, wheat plants were inoculated with fungal biomass without fungicide spraying. In the negative control group, wheat plants were not inoculated with fungal biomass without fungicide treatment. In addition, 25 wheat heads from each

plot we collected 24 h after the first fungicide treatment for azole quantitation. Azoles were assessed using gas chromatography (GC; Łozowicka et al., 2009, 2011) at the Plant Protection Institute, National Research Institute in Białystok. GC analysis was performed with an Agilent (Waldbronn, Germany) model 7890 A gas chromatograph equipped with electron capture (ECD) and nitrogen-phosphorus (NPD) find more with a non-polar column HP-5 ((5%-Phenyl)-methylpolysiloxane; 30 m × 0.32 mm and film thickness 0.50 μm) and Chemstation chromatography manager data acquisition and processing system (Hewlette-Packard, version A.10.2). For confirmation of residues, a mid-polarity column HP-35 ((35%-Phenyl)-methylpolysiloxane; 30 m × 0.32 mm and film thickness 0.50 μm) was used. The operating conditions were as follows: for detectors – injector temperature, 210 °C; carrier

gas, helium at a flow-rate of 3.0 mL min−1; detector temperature, 300 °C (ECD and NPD); make up gas, nitrogen at a flow-rate of 57 mL min−1 (ECD) and 8 mL min−1 (NPD), hydrogen 3.0 mL min−1, air 60 mL min−1; for oven-initial temperature, 120 °C increase to 190 °C at 16 °C min−1, then to 230 °C at 8 °C min−1

and finally to 285 °C at 18 °C min−1 and hold 10 min (ECD and NPD). The volume of final sample extract injected at 210 °C in splitless mode (purge off time 2 min) was 2 mL. Total time of analysis: 20.43 min. The amounts of trichothecene genotypes (3ADON, 15ADON, and NIV) were quantitated in pooled samples by three qPCR assays specific to 3ADON, 15ADON, and NIV producers within F. culmorum/F. graminearum (Kulik, 2011). Each pooled sample (100 g) contained kernels pooled from c. 500 wheat heads per sample. Amoxicillin Kernels were ground to a fine powder for 5 min in A11 basic analytical mill (IKA, Germany). Preparation of cell lysates from 0.1 g of grounded kernels was made in triplicate from each sample as previously described (Kulik, 2011). Each qPCR reaction was prepared in at least three repetitions. The levels of DON, 3ADON, 15ADON, NIV, and 4ANIV in an in vitro experiment were determined in 10 pooled samples by GC-MS analysis as previously described by Perkowski et al. (2003) (Tables 2 and 3). Each pooled sample contained lyophilized fungal biomass pooled from seven replicates (7 Petri plates per variant). Each pooled sample was analyzed once.

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