Significant between-trap differences abundance and parity rates w

Significant between-trap differences abundance and parity rates were observed.\n\nConclusions: Only the direct aspiration collected exclusively host-seeking females, despite a concern that human manipulation may influence estimation of the

biting rate. The sticky cover trap assessed accurately the biting rate of abundant species even if it might act as an interception trap. The drop trap collected the highest abundance of Culicoides and may have caught individuals not attracted Selleckchem Momelotinib by sheep but by its structure. Finally, abundances obtained using the UV-light/suction trap did not estimate accurately Culicoides biting rate.”
“beta-amino acids are widely used in drug research, and S-3-amino-3-phenylpropionic acid (S-APA) is an important pharmaceutical intermediate of S-dapoxetine, which has been approved for the treatment of premature ejaculation. Chiral catalysis is an excellent method for the preparation of enantiopure compounds.

In this study, we used (+/-)-ethyl-3-amino-3-phenylpropanoate (EAP) as the sole carbon source. Three hundred thirty one microorganisms were isolated from 30 soil samples, and 17 strains could produce S-APA. After three rounds of cultivation and identification, the strain Y1-6 exhibiting the highest enantioselective activity of S-APA was identified as Methylobacterium oryzae. The optimal medium composition contained GSK1120212 inhibitor methanol (2.5 g/L), 1,2-propanediol (7.5 g/L), soluble starch (2.5 g/L), and peptone.(10 g/L); it was shaken at 220 rpm for 4-5 days at 30 degrees C. The optimum condition for biotransformation of EAP involved cultivation at 37 degrees C for 48 h with 120 mg of wet cells and 0.64 mg of EAP in 1 ml of transfer solution.

Under this condition, substrate ee was 92.1% and yield was 48.6%. We then attempted to use Methylobacterium Y1-6 to catalyze the hydrolytic reaction with substrates containing 3-amino-3-phenylpropanoate ester, N-substituted-1 beta-ethyl-3-amino-3-phenyl-propanoate, and gamma-lactam. PF-04929113 price It was found that 5 compounds with ester bonds could be stereoselectively hydrolyzed to S-acid, and 2 compounds with gamma-lactam bonds could be stereoselectively hydrolyzed to (-)-gamma-lactam. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Complexation of D-gluconate (Gluc(-)) with Ca2+ has been investigated via H-1, C-13 and Ca-43 NMR spectroscopy in aqueous solutions in the presence of high concentration background electrolytes (1 M <= I <= 4 M (NaCl) ionic strength). From the ionic strength dependence of its formation constant, the stability constant at 6 <= pH <= 11 and at I -> 0 M has been derived (log K-1,1(0) = 1.8 +/- 0.1). The protonation constant of Gluc(-) at I = 1 M (NaCl) ionic strength was also determined and was found to be log K-a = 3.24 +/- 0.01 (C-13 NMR) and log K-a = 3.23 +/- 0.01 (H-1 NMR).

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