With the viability of click chemistry validated on synthetic RNA

With the viability of click chemistry validated on synthetic RNA bearing “click”-reactive alkynes, the scope of the re-action is extended to in-vitro-transcribed or, indeed, any RNA, as a click-reactive azide is incorporated

enzymatically. Once clickable groups are installed on RNA, they can be rapidly click labeled or conjugated together in click ligations, which may be either templated or nontemplated. In click ligations the resultant unnatural triazole-linked selleck RNA backbone is not detrimental to RNA function, thus suggesting a broad applicability of click chemistry in RNA biological studies.”
“To investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) on photosynthetic and antioxidant activities of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) plants, two cultivars (Yuming and New safflower No. 4) were used for long-term pot experiment, under 0, 25, 50 or 100 mg Cd kg(-1) (DW) soil conditions. The results showed that there is a large amount of Cd (148.6-277.2 mg kg(-1)) accumulated in the shoot of safflower, indicating

this species might be a potential Cd accumulator. Exposure to 25-100 mg Cd kg(-1) soil decreased the net photosynthetic rate by 25.6%-48.9% for New safflower No. 4, and 16.7%-57.3% for Yuming, respectively. The inhibition of photosynthesis might result from the limitation of stomatal Selleck JQ1 conductance, reduction in photosynthetic pigment, and destruction of photosynthetic apparatus caused by Cd stress. Cd caused an enhancement of malondialdehyde (MDA), an increase in activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and a decrease in catalase (CAT) activity for both cultivars. It seems that SOD and APX accounted for the scavenging of oxidant stress in safflower cultivars. The physiological response of safflower plants to Cd stress was cultivar- and dose- dependent. New safflower No. 4 exhibited high photosynthetic performance at high Cd stress, which may be contributed by high intercellular CO(2) concentration, APX activity and Car/Chl ratio. In contrast, Yuming is more tolerant to Cd toxicity at low Cd level, in which an efficient antioxidant system is involved.”
“We have reformulated

and generalized our recent work [J. Liu and W. H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 234110 (2007)] into an approach for generating a family PF-3084014 of trajectory-based dynamics methods in the phase space formulation of quantum mechanics. The approach (equilibrium Liouville dynamics) is in the spirit of Liouville’s theorem in classical mechanics. The trajectory-based dynamics is able to conserve the quantum canonical distribution for the thermal equilibrium system and approaches classical dynamics in the classical (h -> 0), high temperature (beta -> 0), and harmonic limits. Equilibrium Liouville dynamics provides the framework for the development of novel theoretical/computational tools for studying quantum dynamical effects in large/complex molecular systems. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

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