The case of biological over-exploitation pre-MPA and open-access harvesting in the HZ post-MPA implies increased harvest as well as increased consumer surplus when demand is downward sloping. This is clearly an economic benefit to be expected from MPA creation for over-exploited resources. Consumer surplus may be of great importance for some resources, for example those harvested and used for easily perishable food at limited size local or national

markets. In the above analysis it has for simplicity been assumed that vessels are homogenous. If vessels are heterogeneous, which is usually thought to be a more realistic assumption, total cost of fishing Torin 1 cost will be non-linear and the most efficient vessels will earn a super-normal profit in spite of open access [21]. This rent is often referred to as intra-marginal rent or producer surplus (PS), and

a recent example for an open-access developing country fishery is demonstrated in [33]. Now the question is whether an MPA as the only policy instrument can potentially increase PS. Open access equilibrium effort is found where average revenue AR(E) is equal to marginal cost MC(E) . With no MPA and total costs now assumed to be C =αE 2, equilibrium open access effort and stock will be given by ∞E=pr/(pr+2α)E∞=pr/(pr+2α) and ∞S=2α/(pr+2α)S∞=2α/(pr+2α). As noted above the reason for choosing the well-known quadratic cost function is to

let the MC increase in E in a simple way. The alternative PD-0332991 order C =αE a, with 1Pyruvate dehydrogenase ( Fig. 4, panel A, solid line). In the other three cases shown, effort increases with reserve size up to between 0.2 and 0.5, then decreases. Actual reserves are rarely greater than 20–50% of the total resource area. Note that for panel A of Fig. 4 both curves represent a heavily overexploited resource (down to 15% of the virgin stock level), and even for the broken curve with moderate relative migration (γ=0.3) effort increases with reserve size up to about m=0.5. The PS will increase when effort increases. The value of the parameter α of the total cost curve is by assumption adjusted such that effort at the pre-MPA open access equilibrium is the same as in the linear cost case, hence Fig. 4 can be used to find when an MPA will increase PS.