Objective The aim of this study was to determine the influenc

\n\nObjective The aim of this study was to determine the influence of neuroendocrine differentiation on treatment response and survival in patients with advanced NSCLC.\n\nMethods A clinical trial included 236 patients (73.7% males), with diagnosis

of NSCLC, determined by histological verification. These patients were treated by combined P5091 chemo- and X-ray therapy at stage III (without pleural effusion) or chemotherapy only at stage III (with pleural effusion) and stage IV of NSCLC. When the progression had been noted at the stage III (without pleural effusion), the treatment was continued with X-ray therapy. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin A (ChrA) as well as synapthophysin (SYN) expression in tissue examples was determined by immunohistochemical analysis with monoclonal mouse anti human bodies (DAKO Comp, Denmark). The treatment was conducted during 4 to 6 chemotherapeutic cycles. The efficacy was assessed after the therapy regimen; median survival time was assessed after the randomization.\n\nResults NSE, ChrA and SYN expression were noted in 56 (23.7%), 33 (13.9%) and 39(16.5%) patients, respectively. Better therapeutic response was significantly higher in patients with expression of NSE, ChrA and SYN (p<0.05). There was significant correlation between

therapy response and the percentage of positive tumour cells with neuroendocrine differentiation (p<0.05). The one-year and two-year follow-up

survival period in patients with neuroendocrine expression was 64% (without SYN-117 chemical structure expression 28%; p<0.001) and 30% (p=0.000).\n\nConclusion Tissue expression of neuroendocrine markers influences greatly a therapeutic response in patients with advanced stage of NSCLC. Better therapeutic response was recorded in patients with possitive expression of neuroendocrine markers and higher percentage of positive tumour cells. Median survival time is higher in patients in III or IV stage of NSCLC, when neuroendocrine markers are expressed.”
“Background: Single-stage transanal endorectal pull-through (TEPT) is a new technique for surgery of Hirschsprung’s disease (HD). TEPT can be assisted by laparoscopy (laparoscopic assisted transanal pull-through, GSK2126458 LATP) or with non-additional procedure (total transanal endorectal pull-through, TTEP). This study was undertaken to evaluate the long-term outcome of these approaches in children with HD.\n\nMethods: We retrospectively studied 131 patients (112 males and 19 females) aged 7 days to 14 years who underwent single-stage TEPT from October 2005. to July 2008. The medical records were reviewed for pre-, intraand immediate post-operative complications. The data on stool pattern and complications were collected during the follow-up. Outcome was measured by continence evaluation score.\n\nResults: No patients had intraoperative complications, but 5 had minor immediate postoperative complications.

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