jejuni infections. Compared to these studies we found a lower source attribution for chickens (45.4%) and a higher source attribution for bovines (44.3%). This could be the result of limited sampling of C. jejuni isolates from chicken meat in our study and the fact that C. jejuni is more difficult to detect by cultivation from meat compared to faecal samples. The meat samples, however, represented all three major chicken meat producers and were collected during the summer peak , when most human C.
jejuni infections occur in Finland . The national low prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish chicken flocks (6.5% in 2003)  in comparison to other EU click here countries could lead to a different source attribution when compared to studies from other countries. In a Finnish slaughterhouse study, C. jejuni was detected in 19.5% of the faecal samples and 3.5% of selleck compound bovine carcasses . However, none of the C. jejuni isolates from carcasses represented PFGE types similar to human isolates . Bovines could be an underestimated route for Campylobacter infections in Finland, AZD9291 supplier although foodborne transmission would be least likely. However, transmission could occur through either direct contact or environmental transmission by shared reservoirs for human patients and bovine C. jejuni strains. A large proportion of our isolates (10.3%) could not
be attributed to any source (BAPS clusters 2 and 3). More than half of these isolates represented the ST-677 CC, which has been detected in various hosts, including starlings , rabbits, environmental waters, wild birds
and cattle . In our previous study this CC was related to drinking non-chlorinated water from a small water plant or from natural water sources . Faecal contamination from wild animals and birds into natural water sources is common and could be hypothesized to have a pronounced role in human infections in summer in our Finnish study region Uusimaa. This is also supported by the Finnish case-control study that identified swimming and drinking from dug wells as important risk factors for infection during summertime . Therefore the role of different water-associated transmission Ureohydrolase routes should not be underestimated in future attribution studies of Finnish domestically acquired C. jejuni human infections. Conclusions Due to the wide distribution and occurrence of some C. jejuni CCs and STs among different hosts, source attribution is a complicated issue and Bayesian methods are considered useful for quantitative probabilistic assignment of STs to genetically related clusters. In our study 71.7% of the bovine isolates and 72.7% of the poultry isolates were found in clusters associated with each host. Of the human isolates 44.3% was found in the bovine-associated BAPS cluster 4 and 45.