in teenage FVPs [34] In addition to these data, we


in teenage FVPs [34]. In addition to these data, we

note that the intake of SFAs by the FVPs was also high (11.1 ± 1.2%) compared to the < 10% that has been suggested to be appropriate the general adult population to reduce cardiovascular diseases [2]. This high cholesterol and SFA intake may be due to the players drinking full-fat milk (3.1 ± 0.9 servings/day), even though their daily number of servings was within the recommendations for athletes [31]. In addition, the FVPs consumed relatively large amounts of pastries and butter, foods containing a considerable quantity of SFAs [18], selleck chemicals whose consumption is not recommended more often than a few times per month [31] and particularly not more than once daily, as was the case for PF-573228 the players in this study (2.1 ± 0.5 servings/day). For athletes’ nutrition, semi-skimmed or skimmed milk is considered preferable,

so as to reduce the intake of cholesterol and calories from SFAs. It is known that the cholesterol metabolism has some negative feedback, in the sense that if large amounts of cholesterol are ingested, the body produces less (in a normal physiological situation). However, an increase in the consumption of SFAs would cause activation of the cholesterol metabolism, with a possible increase in TC [3]. Additionally, the intake of MUFAs (14.3 ± 1.9%) was below the ideal

Thiamet G recommended allowance (15 to 20%) [41]. MUFAs have healthy effects on the heart by increasing HDLc levels [5]. It was also established that the ratios between different fatty acids, as measured by the PUFA/SFA (1.4 ± 0.2) and W6/W3 (6.6 ± 6.4) ratios, were within the recommendations (≥ 0.5 and 5–10:1, respectively), while the PUFA + (MUFA/SFA) intake was below the recommended level (1.9 ± 0.4 vs. ≥ 2) for a healthy diet [41]. An inappropriate dietary intake jeopardizes sports performance and the benefits of training. It is crucial to plan a diet education programme to optimise the pattern of food and drink consumed (in this case, increasing the consumption of carbohydrates while decreasing that of fats and proteins) and hence improve athletes’ sporting performance and health. Future studies should aim to explore LP, as a function of sex, the sport played and the phase of the season (with respect to pre-season, ABT-263 research buy specific preparatory periods, and competitions) and whether there are changes in the profile with diet programmes or supplementation, and in addition should involve hyperlipidaemic subjects. The limiting factor in this study is the small sample size. For results in future research to be significant, the samples should be larger, or the period of the study should be extended.

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