For stabilization of SLNs, the surfactant forms a coating layer so that lipid nanoparticles do not coalesce.5 The second-order polynomial equation relating the response

of % entrapment efficiency (Y2) is given below: equation(2) Y2=+67.81+2.84A−0.71B−3.39C−0.78AB+0.69AC−1.36BC+1.74A2−4.06B2+0.22C2Y2=+67.81+2.84A−0.71B−3.39C−0.78AB+0.69AC−1.36BC+1.74A2−4.06B2+0.22C2 The model F-value of 69.33 implied that the model is significant (p < 0.0001). The ‘Lack of Fit F-value’ of 0.099 implied that the Lack of Fit is not significant (p = 0.9563). As Table 3 shows, the ANOVA test indicates that A, B, C, AB, BC, A2 and B2 are significant model terms. Positive coefficients of A, AC, A2& C2 in equation (2) indicate the synergistic effect on % entrapment efficiency, while negative coefficients of B, C, AB, BC, & B2 indicate the antagonistic effect on % entrapment efficiency. The “Pred R Squared” of 0.9716 is in reasonable agreement A-1210477 solubility dmso with the “”Adj R-Squared”" of 0.9746, indicating the adequacy of the model to predict the response of entrapment efficiency. The ‘Adeq Precision’ of 34.30 indicated an adequate signal. Therefore, this model is used to navigate the design space. The 3-D surface plots for % entrapment efficiency are shown in Fig. 2. The effect of drug to lipid ratio on %

entrapment efficiency depends on the extent of drug solubility in lipid. An increase in % entrapment efficiency from 62.76 (H1) to 69.87 (H2) was observed on increasing the drug lipid ratio from 1:2 to 1:4 (Table 2). This is due to large amount of lipid present for drug entrapment. On further increasing drug to lipid Afatinib order ratio the entrapment efficiency decreased

(data not shown). This is due to expulsion of drug from particle surface.11 A decrease in % entrapment efficiency from 69.00 (H13) to 65.32 (H12) was observed on increasing surfactant concentration and stirring speed (Table 2). The probable mechanism of this behaviour could be that as the particle size decrease on increasing stirring speed, the surface area increase. As the surfactant increase at a constant amount of lipid, the surface of the formed SLNs is too small to adsorb all surfactant molecules, which will nearly result in the formation of micellar solution of the drug. Hence, the solubility of the drug in water phase will be increased. Therefore, the drug could partition from SLNs into the formed micelles in the water phase during stirring or washing time.12 The second-order polynomial equation relating the response of % drug loading (Y3) is given below: equation(3) Y3=+18.43−4.83A−0.16B+0.68C−0.14AB−0.21AC−0.34BC+1.6A2−0.81B2−0.019C2Y3=+18.43−4.83A−0.16B+0.68C−0.14AB−0.21AC−0.34BC+1.6A2−0.81B2−0.019C2 The model F-value of 323.46 implied that the model is significant (p < 0.0001). The ‘Lack of Fit F-value ‘of 3.64 implied that the Lack of Fit is not significant (p = 0.1221).