(C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective-We tested the hypothesis that endothelial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-. protects against vascular thrombosis selleck products using a transgenic mouse model expressing a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-. mutant (E-V290M) selectively in endothelium. Approach and Results-The time to occlusive thrombosis of the carotid artery was significantly shortened in E-V290M mice compared with nontransgenic littermates after either chemical injury with ferric chloride (5.1 +/- 0.2 versus 10.1 +/- 3.3 minutes; P=0.01) or photochemical injury with rose bengal (48 +/- 9 versus 74 +/- 9 minutes; P=0.04). Gene set enrichment

analysis demonstrated the upregulation of NF-.B target genes, including P-selectin, in aortic endothelial cells from E-V290M mice (P smaller than 0.001). Plasma P-selectin and carotid artery P-selectin mRNA were elevated in E-V290M mice (P smaller than 0.05). P-selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling on mesenteric venules was increased in E-V290M mice compared with nontransgenic mice (53 +/- 8 versus 25 +/- 7 per minute; P=0.02). The

shortened time to arterial occlusion in E-V290M mice was reversed by administration of P-selectin-blocking antibodies or neutrophil-depleting antibodies (P=0.04 and P=0.02, respectively) before photochemical injury. Conclusions-Endothelial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-. protects against thrombosis through a mechanism that involves downregulation of P-selectin

expression and diminished P-selectin-mediated leukocyte-endothelial interactions.”
“This review summarizes the effects selleck inhibitor of neuroinflammatory stress on the subventricular zone (SVZ), where new neurons are constitutively produced in the adult brain, especially focusing on the relation with Parkinson’s disease (PD), because the SVZ R788 mouse is under the control of dopaminergic afferents from the substantia nigra (SN). In Lewy bodies-positive-PD, microglia is known to phagocytoze aggregated alpha-synuclein, resulting in the release of inflammatory cytokines. The neurogenesis in the SVZ should be affected in PD brain by the neuroinflammatory process. The administration of lipopolysaccaharide is available as an alternative model for microglia-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons and also the impairment of stem cell maintenance. Therefore, the research on the neuroinflammatory process in the SVZ gives us a hint to prevent the outbreak of PD or at least slow the disease process.”
“Melatonin influences a number of physiological processes and is believed to play an antitumoral role in several types of cancers, but its impact on pancreatic cancer is not fully clarified. The growth inhibitory effect of melatonin on pancreatic cancer cell line SW-1990 was detected in vitro and in vivo. Annexin V/PI assay was applied to detect apoptosis and necrosis in SW-1990 cells.

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