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“Background: A focal H5N1 outbreak in poultry was reported from Manipur, a north-eastern state, of India, in 2007. The aim of this study was to genetically characterize the Manipur isolate to understand the relationship with other H5N1 isolates and to trace the possible source of introduction of the virus into the
country.\n\nResults: Characterization of the complete genome revealed that the virus belonged to clade 2.2. It was distinctly different from viruses of the three EMA sublineages of clade 2.2 but related to isolates from wild migratory waterfowl from Russia, China and Mongolia. The HA gene, had the cleavage site GERRRRKR, earlier reported in whooper swan isolates from Mongolia in 2005. A stop codon at position 29 in the PB1-F2 protein could have implications on the replication efficiency. Selleck AZD1208 The acquisition of polymorphisms as seen in recent isolates of 2005-07 from distinct geographical
PF-02341066 mouse regions suggests the possibility of transportation of H5N1 viruses through migratory birds.\n\nConclusion: Considering that all eight genes of the earlier Indian isolates belonged to the EMA3 sublineage and similar strains have not been reported from neighbouring countries of the subcontinent, it appears that the virus may have been introduced independently.”
cells represent an important component of the innate immune response against GW786034 mw infection and tumors. Age-associated changes in NK cell phenotype have been previously reported that can be responsible of functional NK cell deficiency. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect CMV seropositivity and aging on the distribution of NK cell subsets with a focus on the expression of cytotoxicity-related molecules and on the expression of CD94/NKG2 heterodimers and CD57 on these NK cell subsets. Our results show that CMV seropositivity in young individuals does not significantly affect peripheral blood NK cell percentage and NK cell subsets defined by the use of CD56 and CD16 markers. In contrast a significant increase in the percentage of NK cells is observed in elderly donors, all of them are CMV seropositive, when compared with young CMV seropositive subjects. A decrease in the percentage of CD56 bright NK cells, either fully immature CD16 negative or CD16+ and an increase in the CD56-CD16+ subset are also found in the elderly. CMV seropositivity either in healthy young or elderly individuals is associated to the expression of CD94/NKG2C dimers and high expression of CD57 on the CD56dimCD16+ NK cell subset.