Appl Environ Microbiol 1991,57(4):1213–1217 PubMed Authors’ contr

Appl Environ Microbiol 1991,57(4):1213–1217.PubMed Authors’ contributions MP selleck compound participated in the design of experimental work and manuscript writing. She carried out transposon mutagenesis screen, most phenol tolerance and killing assays, and flow cytometry analysis. HI constructed mutant strains.

LL contributed to the mutagenesis screen and phenol tolerance assays. MK participated in manuscript editing. RH performed enzyme measurements and coordinated experimental work and manuscript LY2603618 chemical structure editing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Tuberculosis (TB) is among the top three leading causes of death by a single infectious agent worldwide. The situation is further aggravated by the increased susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive people to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis [1], and by the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB strains in many geographical areas [2]. An estimate of nearly 9.2 million cases of TB

AZD0156 mw occurred during 2007, 4.1 million of which corresponded to new smear-positive cases and 14.8% were reported among HIV-positive people [3]. Unfortunately, the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is insufficient to control the worldwide spread of this health threat, especially since it is contraindicated for HIV-positive people and has a variable efficacy, mostly due to its low capacity to stimulate the broad cell spectrum needed for inducing an effective immune response

[4, 5]. Therefore, a large body of research has focused on searching for new specific antigens of M. tuberculosis that could be used as new prophylactic alternatives with the aim of replacing or improving the currently available BCG vaccine [6–8]. The publication of the complete M. tuberculosis H37Rv genome sequence has opened a gate for the identification of genes that encode M. tuberculosis antigens putatively able to trigger an effective immune response Leukotriene-A4 hydrolase and that could therefore be interesting as potential components of antituberculous subunit vaccines [9, 10]. The immunological properties of these predicted M. tuberculosis-specific antigens have been characterized mainly using recombinant proteins [11]. Synthetic peptides have been also used with success for screening pathogen-specific genome regions of putative protective importance in order to identify T-cell reactivity [12]. In TB, synthetic peptides have shown good results for diagnosing TB in cattle [13] and in a protective vaccine tested in mice [14]. The first encounter between M. tuberculosis and the host cell occurs via an array of different receptor molecules, including complement receptors, the mannose receptor, the dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), and Fc receptors [15].

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