5 years in women. Psychiatric symptoms About one fifth of CADASIL patients experienced episodes of mood disturbances. Their frequency is widely variable between families.5, 62 Episodes of major depression were reported by 10% of the 80 CADASIL patients investigated by Peters et al. In some cases, antidepressant drugs were found to be inefficient in relieving symptoms during
the most severe episodes. Few affected subjects have had severe depression Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the melancholic type alternating with typical manic episodes suggesting bipolar mood disorder.63 Based on this observation, the potential role of the NOTCH3 gene was thus investigated in familial forms of bipolar disorder, but the results were negative.64 The location of ischemic lesions in basal ganglia and the frontal location of white-matter lesions may
play a key role in the occurrence of such mood disturbances in CADASIL patients.65, 66 In addition to the mood disorders, a variety of psychiatric manifestations can occur in CADASIL Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical patients. Agoraphobia, addiction to alcohol, and psychotic symptoms have been already reported.4, 5,67 The observation of schizophrenia in association with CADASIL appears anecdotal.68 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Most often, psychiatric manifestations are observed in patients after diagnosis and a history of ischemic symptoms with signal abnormalities at MRI examination. However these episodes can be inaugural, and may lead to misdiagnosis.5, 62, 69 Leyhe et al recently reported two cases admitted to a gerontopsychiatric hospital with psychopathological manifestations at the onset of the disorder.70 The first case was a 66-year-old Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical man who was described as a reserved, peaceful, and calm person and who became irritable, started to neglect Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical himself and his duties, and presented a submanic episode which mildly improved after treatment with neuroleptic drugs. The patient started to consume alcohol again after years of abstinence. The second case was a 62-year-old woman with a 2-year episode of depressive symptoms who was initially successfully treated by amitriptyline. She was admitted to hospital
because she deteriorated despite medication, developing paranoid ideas and melancholia. The psychopathological symptoms slowly improved Ketanserin on a combination of antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs and neuroleptics. In both cases, the MRI examination and the family history were essential for diagnosis. Correlations with cerebral tissue lesions MRI is crucial for the diagnosis of CADASIL, and is much more sensitive than computerized tomography (CT)-scan. It is always abnormal in patients with neurological symptoms other than migraine attacks.1, 5, 41, 71, 72 MRI signal abnormalities can also be detected click here during a presymptomatic period of variable duration. They are observed as early as 20 years of age. After age 35, all subjects having the affected gene have an abnormal MRI.