12; 95% CI 9 77 – 12 66) when compared to the other NTS serovars

12; 95% CI 9.77 – 12.66) when compared to the other NTS serovars. In comparison, approximately 6% of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis isolates in the United States are recovered from blood (CDC unpublished data). A previous study described an U0126 datasheet apparently invasive clone of a different Salmonella serovar in another region. However this study focused strictly on blood isolates [8]. For this study, we felt it would be important to characterize both blood and stool isolates.

Characterization and comparison of blood and stool isolates is crucial for determining if there is a true increase in invasiveness or if patients are simply becoming infected with a regionally dominant clone. The objective

of this study was to characterize Salmonella serovar Enteritidis isolates causing human gastroenteritis and bacteremia in Thailand in a spatial and temporal context in order to determine if bloodstream infections are being Selleckchem Tariquidar caused by an invasive clone of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis. Isolates were characterized utilizing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination for antimicrobial resistance, phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA). Methods Bacterial isolates The WHO National Salmonella and Shigella Centre in Nonthaburi receives all presumptive positive Salmonella isolates check details from all diagnostic laboratories throughout Thailand. In 2008, 444 isolates were identified as Salmonella serovar Enteritidis. Forty were selected for further PTK6 study. Twenty isolates were recovered from blood specimens and 20 were recovered from stool specimens (fecal specimens or rectal swabs). Patient log-sheets were reviewed to insure that only one isolate

per patient was included the study. Isolates were selected to insure geographic (Zones: 1, 3, 4, 10, 11, 12, & Bangkok BKK), age (5 month to 89 years), and seasonal (all isolates collected from January to December with exception of August) distribution. An equal number of stool and blood isolates were submitted from each zone. Serotyping Isolates were serotyped using slide agglutination. O and H antigens were characterized by agglutination with hyperimmune sera (S & A reagents lab, Ltd, Bangkok, Thailand) and a serotype was assigned according to the Kauffmann-White scheme [9]. At CDC, the serotype was confirmed and PCR testing for the Salmonella serovar Enteritidis specific marker Sdf was performed [10]. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing MIC testing was performed at National Food Institute (DTU-Food) in Denmark using a commercially prepared, dehydrated panel, Sensititre, from TREK Diagnostic Systems Ltd. (East Grinstead, England).

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