​cdc ​gov/​vaccines/​pubs/​pinkbook/​downloads/​pert ​pdf) Burkh

​cdc.​gov/​vaccines/​pubs/​pinkbook/​downloads/​pert.​pdf). Adriamycin datasheet Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei are closely related Gram-negative organisms for which developing efficacious countermeasures is highly desirable. Both species are classified as Tier 1 agents by

the U.S. Federal Select Agent Program because of concerns regarding their use as bioweapons, especially since B. mallei has been utilized in this manner on more than one occasion [27–31]. Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted pleomorphic coccobacillus that does not persist in the environment outside of its natural equine reservoir. The Trichostatin A bacterium causes the highly contagious zoonotic disease glanders, which primarily affects horses, and is endemic to parts of Asia, Africa, South America and the Middle East [27, 32–38]. In humans, infection typically occurs via the cutaneous or aerosol route upon contact with infected animals. Clinical manifestations include fever, pneumonia, necrosis of the trachea Ku-0059436 concentration and bronchi, bacteremia, and dissemination of B. mallei to organs where it causes necrotizing abscesses. Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophyte of wet soils and is endemic to countries bordering the equator. The organism can infect most mammals and causes the disease melioidosis in humans, a febrile illness that varies greatly in its clinical presentation. Disease states range from flu-like malaise

to septicemia, chronic abscess formation in deep tissues, or bacteremic Phospholipase D1 pneumonia [33, 39–45]. Infection is generally acquired by percutaneous inoculation, ingestion and inhalation of aerosols, and the risk of contracting disease is proportionate to the concentration of B. pseudomallei in soil. Burkholderia pseudomallei is a leading cause of sepsis and bacteremic pneumonia in Southeast Asia and Australia, and melioidosis is increasingly recognized as an emerging infectious diseases in many tropical regions of the world [40, 46, 47]. Glanders and melioidosis

have high mortality rates (up to 50%) despite aggressive antimicrobial therapy. The recommended treatment involves the use of ceftazidime and meropenem (intensive phase) and TMP-SMX and co-amoxiclav (eradication phase) for several months [48]. Response to treatment is slow and eradication of the agents is difficult, often resulting in protracted alternating bouts of remission and exacerbation. There are no vaccines available to protect against either Burkholderia species. Clearly, there is a need to identify and characterize targets for developing countermeasures for these organisms. The genomes of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei have been reported to encode multiple autotransporters [49–51]. In this study, we examined one of these gene products and evaluated it role in adherence in vitro and virulence in a mouse aerosol model of infection. Results Identification of a gene encoding a potential autotransporter adhesin shared by B. mallei and B.

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