5%) included in the PTSD group, χ2 (1, n= 44) = 3.99, P < 0.05, OR = 5.07. The number of participants reporting sleep difficulties in the control group (13%) was disproportionately lower than what was reported by the PTSD group (90%), χ2 (1, n= 44) = 26.33, P < 0.05, OR = 63.33. Eleven PTSD-diagnosed participants reported taking prescribed antidepressant Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical medication (52.4%) as opposed to only two participants from the control
group (8.7%), χ2 (1, n= 44) = 10.06, P < 0.05, OR = 11.55. The descriptive statistics for all other independent variables are presented in Table 1. Table 1 Independent variables: descriptive statistics Self-report measures A series of t-tests were conducted to explore observed group differences between PTSD-diagnosed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical participants and the control group with regard to independent variables (Table 2). Bonferroni adjustments to the alpha levels were made in order to correct for familywise error rate. As
expected, PTSD-diagnosed participants reported experiencing more PTSD symptoms (M = 58.62, SD = 8.95) than did participants in the control group (M = 24.17, SD = 6.10), t (42) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical = 9.70, P < 0.0071. PTSD-diagnosed participants also reported higher levels of combat exposure (M = 24.76, SD = 9.40) than did participants in the control group (M = 7.09, SD = 7.92), t (42) = 6.77, P < 0.0071. PTSD-diagnosed participants reported higher levels of both depression, t (42) = 9.70, P < 0.0071, (M = 22.71, SD = 7.84) and anxiety (M = 24.43, SD = 9.53) than control participants (M = 4.74, SD = 4.00; M = 2.17, SD = 2.57, respectively), t (42) = 10.79, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical P < 0.0071. No group differences
were observed regarding age, years of education, or alcohol consumption. Table 2 Independent variables: comparisons of means between PTSD and control group (t-tests) Behavioral performance A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to explore group behavioral differences on BDS scores and alerting, orienting, and executive efficiency index scores of the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ANT. Neither the assumption of homoscedasticity nor equal group variances were violated (P > 0.05). PTSD participants had significantly lower scores (M = 1.41, SD = 0.91) on the BDS task than did controls (M = 2.54, SD = 1.11), F(1, 42) = 13.35, P= 0.001, . No other group differences were observed, P > 0.05 (Table 3). Table 3 Dependent variables: comparisons of means between PTSD and control group Working memory: aggregate scores An analysis of covariance Oxymatrine (ANCOVA) was conducted to explore the relationship between PTSD diagnosis and aggregate working memory (BDS) scores, while entering depression, anxiety, and combat exposure as covariates. A preliminary analysis evaluating the homogeneity-of-regression (slopes) assumption indicated that the relationship between the covariates and the dependent variable did not find more differ significantly as a function of the independent variable, P > 0.05.