2 × 10 m3 s− 1 yr− 1.
The negative trend in net precipitation was due to a negative evaporation trend of approximately − 1.6 × 10 m3 s− 1 yr− 1 buy Gefitinib together with a negative precipitation trend of − 3.8 × 10 m3 s− 1 yr− 1. The freshwater discharge into the EMB (i.e. via rivers of the Eastern Basin plus the Black Sea) also displayed a negative trend of –2.4 × 10 m3 s− 1 yr− 1, explained mainly by the building of the Aswan High Dam in 1964 (which reduced the River Nile’s discharge by approximately half) and decreasing net precipitation over the Black Sea Basin (the decrease in Black Sea discharge was estimated to be approximately − 9.8 × 10 m3 s− 1 yr− 1). The negative trends in the freshwater components indicating increasing EMB salinity agree with the findings of Skliris et al. (2007). The EMB monthly mean river runoff ranged from 0.006 × 106 m3 s− 1 in August to 0.018 × 106 m3 s− 1 in April, with an annual average of 0.011 × 106 m3 s− 1. Over the studied 52-year period, Qin – Qout averaged
0.023 ± 0.84 × 106 m3 s− 1, while As(P – E) averaged –0.03 ± 0.04 × 106 m3 s− 1, the difference being balanced by the river discharge ( Table 1). The monthly means of the heat budget components are presented in Table 2 and Figure 14, while the annual means of Fn, Fos and Floss are presented in Figure 15. The heat balance simulations indicate that the heat loss from the open sea was almost balanced by the solar radiation to the open water surface. Heat loss from the open sea ranged from 134.9 W m− 2 to 229.8 W m− 2, while solar radiation to the open water surface ranged from –300.3 W m− 2 in July to –73.3 W m− 2 in December. Cabozantinib price The total heat flux from the EMB surface was negative (indicating fluxes into the water body) from March to August, while it was positive in the rest of the year. Latent heat flux and net long-wave radiation are more important than sensible heat flux in controlling the variability of heat loss from the open sea. The annual average value of Floss was 8.7 W m − 2, which needs to be balanced by the difference in heat transported by the in- and outflowing
water. During the study period, the annual average values of Fn and Fos were 195.6 W m− 2 and − 186.9 W m− 2 respectively. selleck kinase inhibitor Modelled Fn data indicate an increasing trend of 0.07 W m− 2 yr− 1, while Fos data indicate a decreasing trend of approximately 0.07 W m− 2 yr− 1. This indicates an increase in solar radiation into the water body and an increase in net heat loss, probably due to reduced total cloud cover rates. Moreover, the figures indicate a close relationship between the ECMWF meteorological data and the present modelled heat balance components, i.e. Fn, Fos and Floss, with biases of 4, 2.7 and 3.2 W m− 2 respectively. In addition, the positive value of the annual average Floss, 8.7 W m− 2, implies that the EMB imports heat from the Western Basin ( Table 2).